Immunometabolism and Exercise: New avenues
Immune system and cell metabolism have been interacted constantly, by synthesis and release of immunomodulatory proteins, recognized as cytokines, in order to maintain the body homeostasis. The “crosstalk” between systems has been widely spread in several areas of knowledge, mainly in the health field, as Immunometabolism. Diseases of the 21st century, which affect world populations, are characterized by inflammatory processes favoring the worsening of the illness itself and the installation of other co-morbidities. In general, the inflammatory response is associated with poor diet and physical inactivity, which modify the metabolic dynamics among cytokines, fatty acids and endotoxin culminating in reaction cascades, activating gene transcription factors, such as NF-kB. Furthermore, regular physical exercise is widely recommended as a powerful tool at the prevention and treatment of several metabolic diseases in virtue of anti-inflammatory and anti-atherogenic capacity, through anti-inflammatory myokine production, such as IL-6, from the stimuli generated by muscle contraction and proteins and gene transcription factors activation, as PPAR, which increase the anti-inflammatory response. Thus, the purpose of this review is to contextualize and disseminate knowledge about an emerging area, the Immunometabolism, featuring its function and performance in the illness and health fields by physical exercise.
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