Motricidade 2019-01-04T13:01:04+00:00 Nuno Garrido Open Journal Systems <p>Journal Motricidade (ISSN 1646-107X, eISSN 2182-2972) is a scientific quarterly&nbsp;journal published by <a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Desafio Singular Editions</a>. Journal Motricidade publishes relevant original research and review articles, that are methodologically sound, theoretically grounded and that will potentially contribute to the scientific areas of sports, psychology and human development, and health promoting the international debate on those themes.<br><br>It is currently indexed in some of the most influential international databases such as <strong>ISI Web of Knowledge/<em>Scielo Citation Index</em></strong> (Thomson Reuters), <strong>Elsevier </strong>(SCOPUS, EMCare), <strong>SCImago</strong> (SJR:&nbsp;Medicine, Health Professions),&nbsp;<strong>PsycINFO</strong>, IndexCopernicus, <strong>Scielo</strong>, CABI, Qualis, <strong>SPORTDiscus</strong>, EBSCO, CINAHL, Proquest, DOAJ, Redalyc, Latindex, Gale/Cengage Learning, SIIC Databases, BVS ePORTUGUESe, SHERPA/RoMEO, OCLC, Hinari/WHO, Swets Information Services, among others.<br><br>Journal Motricidade complies with the guidelines of the International Committee of the Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE) and the American Psychological Association (APA) for the presentation of scientific articles in peer reviewed journals.</p> New year, new instructions for authors 2019-01-04T12:58:24+00:00 Nuno Domingos Garrido 2018-12-30T18:06:31+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Analysis of Perceived Physical and Motor Competence in 10- to 13-year-old Spanish Children 2019-01-04T13:01:04+00:00 Pedro Gil-Madrona Antonio Pita-Lozano Arturo Díaz-Suárez Guillermo Felipe López Sánchez <p>It was our objective to analyze the perceived physical and motor competence in 10- to 13-year-old Spanish children, and to validate to the Spanish language and context the questionnaire of Scrabis-Fletcher and Silverman (2010). The perception of competence was analysed in 27 schools of Albacete (Spain), with a total of 389 boys and 391 girls, whose age ranged from 10 to 13 (average=11.08 and SD=0.43). Different analyses were performed, starting with a forward analysis of the items, using graphics and statistics. After this, an internal consistence study was performed, through Cronbach's alpha, using a multilevel package, version 2.3. Finally, the constructs structure was analyzed through a factorial confirmatory analysis (FCA), which used a Lavaan package, version 0.5-11. The consistence was high as a whole (Cronbach's alpha: 0.74). There was a high correlation between all items, even those from different factors. Regarding the analysis of students´ perceived physical and motor competence, the best values were obtained in the perceptions they had about their teachers and classmates, although they had worse values about their own personal experiences. Two questionnaires of 2 and 3 factors, using 7 and 14 items, respectively were established. Therefore, the instrument <em>Perception of Competence in Middle School Physical Education</em> was validated within the Spanish social context. The main practical application is the possibility of using this questionnaire in the PE lessons in Spain to know and increase the perceived physical and motor competence of the children.</p> 2018-12-10T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Representation of physical activity domains and sedentary behaviors across categories of gender and disability in children’s TV cartoons 2019-01-04T13:01:04+00:00 Sandra Gans-Segrera Javier Molina-García Vladimir Martínez-Bello <p>Television (TV) cartoons could reflect and shape social values about children’s health-related behaviors. The main aim of this study is to analyze the portrayal of physical activity (PA) domains in the most popular Spanish children’s television (TV) cartoons. It is performed a content analysis of each scene following a coding scheme. The sample selected included the five most popular children’s TV cartoons for the 2013-2014 period in Spain. Our results show a large gap between the modest representation of different PA domains compared to the overwhelming depiction of sedentary behaviors. We do not find evidence of males and females participating equally in a variety of PA domains, and we fail to identify any characters with disabilities, reinforcing evidence on their invisibility in different media. Current children’s cartoons in Spain are not adequate regarding promoting healthy behaviors related to PA. While policy makers need to work on limiting sedentary time in pre-schoolers, children, teachers, and parents should be encouraged to develop their critical thinking about the under-representation of health-related behaviors—including PA—on children’s TV cartoons. The study further contributes to the scientific literature by shedding light on the typical health-related behaviors coded in analyses of children’s cartoons.</p> 2018-12-10T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Neuromuscular efficiency of the knee joint muscles in the early-phase of strength training: effects of antagonist’s muscles pre-activation 2019-01-04T13:01:03+00:00 Euler Alves Cardoso Frederico Ribeiro Neto Wagner Rodrigues Martins Martim Bottaro Rodrigo Luiz Carregaro <p>It was our objective tTo compare the neuromuscular efficiency (NME) adaptations between resistance exercise methods (with and without pre-activation of the antagonist’s muscles) after six-weeks training. This randomized controlled trial assigned forty-nine men (mean age 20.9 ± 2.2 years; height 1.80 ± 0.1 m; body mass 75.0 ± 8.2 kg) into two groups: 1) Reciprocal Training group (RT, concentric knee flexion immediately followed by concentric knee extension at 60°.s<sup>-1</sup>); and Conventional Training (CT, concentric knee extension exercise). Both training adopted three sets, 10 repetitions at 60°.s<sup>-1</sup>, 2 days/week for 6 weeks. NME of knee extension and flexion were assessed pre and post-training. The groups were similar at baseline, for all variables. We found significant effects on NME only for the rectus femoris muscle in the RT group (ES = 0.31; 95%CI [0.30-0,92]; <em>p</em>&lt;0.01). There were no significant differences at NME pre- and post-training in CT and Total Work did not differ between groups. Reciprocal training provided better neuromuscular efficiency, but effects were limited to the rectus femoris muscle. The small effect sizes suggest caution in the results.</p> 2018-12-10T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## The role of hand dominance in padel: performance profiles of professional players 2019-01-04T12:58:23+00:00 Javier Courel-Ibáñez Bernardino Javier Sánchez Alcaraz-Martínez <p>Profiling methods allow coaches to determine players’ profiles for designing training programs as specific as possible to maximize performance. We aimed to define the distinctive performance profiles for professional padel players according to technical, spatial, effectiveness and hand dominance characteristics. A multivariate decision tree approach was used to identify and classify players’ profiles. Hand dominance comparison revealed a similar technical game pattern along the match (<em>p </em>= 0.330) but different effectiveness rates (<em>p </em>= 0.012). Left-handed scored more points using smashes (63.3 % vs. 40.7 %) but made more errors using the wall (37.7 % vs. 19.5 %); right-handed secured the ball with fewer errors (11.2 % vs. 8.2 %) and more continuity actions (84.9 % vs. 79.9 %). According to these findings, the hand dominance has an important role in players’ game style and effectiveness. These differences should be taken into account for designing optimal training programs in padel.</p> 2018-12-30T23:38:30+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Physical fitness of amateur paddle players: comparisons between different competitive levels 2019-01-04T13:01:02+00:00 Camila Borges Müller Fabricio Boscolo Del Vecchio <p>Padel is widely practiced racket sport, although there is scanty data comparing competitive levels and differences between the sexes. Physical fitness of padel players was compared, according to sex and level. The research involved 35 people (age = 29.6 ± 2.9 years, practice = 6.8 ± 4.9 years), 13 of the first, 15 of the second and 7 of the third category. Aerobic power (PAM) with Yo-YoIR1, agility with handball agility specific test (HAST), muscular power with vertical jump and 3kg medicineball throw, and handgrip endurance strength (HES) with dynamometer were measured. The variables PAM, HAST, vertical jump, throttle and FIPM were significantly different between genders. In addition, in the male category, players in the upper category had lower heart rate scores after Yo-YoIR1 as well as distance traveled, throttle and FIPM maximum, while in females the superior category was better in the variables distance traveled in Yo-YoIR1 and vertical jump. On the other hand, in both sexes, players of superior categories presented greater time of practice. Amateur padel players with a higher competitive level do not present higher physical fitness, but present longer practice time.</p> 2018-12-10T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Blood Pressure Responses in Isokinetic Dynamometry Test in Elderly Community Women: An Exploratory Study 2019-01-04T12:58:27+00:00 Rubens Vinícius Letieri Guilherme Eustáquio Furtado Taís Rieping Mayrhon José Abrantes Farias Ana Maria Miranda Botelho Teixeira The aim of the study was to verify the systolic, diastolic and mean arterial pressure response in elderly women during isokinetic test. The study included 54 females (68.8 ± 5.9 years) divided into two age groups (Group 1: 60 to 70 and group 2: above 71 years). BP was measured before and immediately after the isokinetic knee extension / flexion test in the concentric-concentric mode. After the test, significant elevations were observed in relation to the pre-test in SBP (G1: Δ% = 29.7%, G2: Δ% = 20.6%, p &lt;.01, respectively) and in MAP (G1: Δ% = 7.6 %, G2: Δ% = 8.4%, p &lt;.01, respectively). The use of isokinetic tests produces elevations in systolic blood pressure and mean arterial pressure in elderly women. Increases occur independently of the age group studied. However, the increases detected do not appear to be of sufficient magnitude to constitute a health hazard whereby isokinetic tests can be safely applied in this population. 2018-12-10T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Effects of Rio de Janeiro Ar Livre program on the autonomy of octogenarian elderly women 2019-01-04T12:58:26+00:00 Larissa Aguirres Helio Furtado, Dr. Gabriela Rezende de Oliveira Venturini, Ms Flavia Porto, Dra. José Manuel Vilaça Maio-Alves, Dr. Nádia Souza Lima da Silva <p>With the increase in life expectancy, it is important to acknowledge the impact of health promotion programs on the elderly. The aimed of this study was to evaluate the influence of the Rio de Janeiro <em>Ar Livre</em> physical program on the functional autonomy of octogenarian elderly women´s. To this end, elderly women´s from 19 Rio de Janeiro <em>Ar Livre</em> program gyms were selected for the experimental group (EG) (n=23; 82.57±3.78 years), and for the Control Group (CG) (n=17; 82.88±2.23 years) from the attending cohabitation houses of the City of Rio de Janeiro. To access the functional autonomy was used Rikli and Jones (1999) protocol in two times separated by (28 weeks). It was observed in the EG a significant (p=0.010) increase in Upper limbs' strength test (13.00±3.41 to 15.09±3.60 times, pre and post innervation, respectively) and a significant (p=0.002) increase in 2 minutes Step test in the CG (36.59±15.00 to 47.24±10.96 times, pre and post, respectively). However, any significant differences between groups were observed in all variables analysed. Based in the present data we can conclude that the training program was only effective in the promotions of the functional strength of the upper limbs and to maintain the functional autonomy of octogenarian elderly women.</p> 2018-12-12T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Body-image and -size perception after a single session of HIIT body work in healthy adult men 2019-01-04T12:58:22+00:00 Roberta L Rica João M Miranda Alexandre F Machado Alexandre L Evangelista Cauê La Scala Teixeira Eliane F Gama Graça Pinto Victor Machado Reis Danilo S Bocalini <p>It was our objective to analyze the effects of a single session of whole body HIIT on body-image and -scheme parameters of healthy adult men. Twenty-one active, healthy adults performed high-intensity intermittent training based on full body exercise. The training session involved 20 sets of 30 second all-out exercise and 30 seconds of passive recovery between sets. All subjects underwent blood lactate measurement, rate of perceived exertion, feeling scale and body image assessment and perception of body size measurements. Significant differences (<em>p</em>&lt;0.001) were found on blood lactate but not in feeling scale. The values of current and adequate silhouette did not differ between each other and the real silhouette. Significant differences were found on Image Marking Procedure (IMP) (<em>p</em>&lt; 0.003). Additionally, significant differences (<em>p</em>= 0.009) were found on prevalence of adequate, hypoeschematic and hypeschematic. Although alteration was not found on self-perception of body image, a single session of HIIT body work promoted alteration on body size perception in healthy adult men.</p> 2018-12-31T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## A retrospective analysis of retirement of football players in Portugal 2019-01-04T12:58:27+00:00 António Carapinheira Miquel Torregrossa Pedro Mendes Pedro Guedes carvalho Bruno Filipe Rama Travassos <p>The purpose of this study was to analyse the retirement of elite football players in Portugal. Specifically, the quality of retirement and the resources available were evaluated. To develop an understanding of the process of the sporting retirement of elite football players we used data from in-depth, semi-structured interviews with ninety professional players from the portuguese football national team. &nbsp;Most of the elite Portuguese footballers we investigated retired from sport between 36 and 40 years of age, their retirement had been involuntary and it had taken them less than a year to accept retirement. Most had only been educated to secondary level and had a strong athletic identity, no plans for their post-football career exist and relied on family as their main psychological support. None of the players had received support from a formal programme. Despite of the findings being consistent with previous research from other Southern European cultures, it seems that the athletic retirement of portuguese footballers has some particularities. Most portuguese footballers retired later and had longer playing careers than athletes in other countries. In addition, retirement was involuntary in most of cases, yet players reported that it took them a relatively short time to accept retirement.</p> 2018-12-10T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Validation of automated apparatus for upper limb velocity testing 2019-01-04T12:58:22+00:00 Leandro Medeiros Silva Felipe José Aidar Dihogo Gama Matos Eduardo Estevan Santana Matheus Peixoto Dantas Petrus Gantois Santos Paulo Moreira Dantas Breno Araújo Cabral <p>The purpose of this paper was to validate the ability of automated devices to measure the velocity of the upper limbs. Thus, 144 students, from 8 to 17 years old, both sexes, participated in the study in a social project in the city of Natal/RN. The Automated Tapping Test (AATT) was developed following the dimensions of the original EUROFIT test, but built out of metal parts, so that the calibration was more accurate and could be read as an electronic signal by the integrated circuit. The upper limb velocity test was applied in three steps: before performing the original test, all participants underwent a laterality check and then motor practice similar to the original test. After 30 minutes, the first step in the pattern established by the EUROFIT test battery was performed and 30 minutes later, the third stage, with the AATT. The measurement reliability of the automated apparatus was tested through intraclass correlations and a strong intraclass interaction coefficient of r = 0.901 was found. In conclusion, the AATT was found to be accurate and efficient as to what it is proposed to evaluate, being able to minimize the intra-evaluator error and to assist professionals in the sports.</p> 2018-12-31T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Data’s Hidden Data: Qualitative Revelations of Sports Efficiency Analysis brought by Neural Network Performance Metrics 2019-01-04T12:58:24+00:00 Ana Teresa Campaniço António Valente Rogério Serôdio Sérgio Escalera <p>In the study of effectiveness and efficiency of an athlete’s performance, intelligent systems can be applied on qualitative approaches and their performance metrics provide useful information on not just the quality of the data, but also reveal issues about the observational criteria and data collection context itself. 2000 executions of two similar exercises, with different levels of complexity, were collected through a single inertial sensor applied on the fencer’s weapon hand. After the signals were split into their key segments through Dynamic Time Warping, the extracted features and respective qualitative evaluations were fed into a Neural Network to learn the patterns that distinguish a good from a bad execution. The performance analysis of the resulting models returned a prediction accuracy of 76.6% and 72.7% for each exercise, but other metrics pointed to the data suffering from high bias. This points towards an imbalance in the qualitative criteria representation of the bad executions, which can be explained by: i) reduced number of samples; ii) ambiguity in the definition of the observation criteria; iii) a single sensor being unable to fully capture the context without taking the actions of the other key body segments into account.</p> 2018-12-19T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Biomechanical characterization of swimmers with physical disabilities 2019-01-04T12:58:25+00:00 Valdir Junior Alexandre Medeiros Kelly Jesus Nuno Domingos Garrido Rui Corredeira Daniel Daly Ricardo Jorge Fernandes <p>The evaluation of swimming technique is one of the main aspects to be considered in any training program, with biomechanics being an important source of knowledge. It was our objective to characterize the biomechanical parameters (SL and SF) relating them to the swimming velocity (<em>v</em>) at different intensities and to analyze within each swimming stroke cycle the intra-cyclic velocity variation (IVV) in a group of motor disabled swimmers. Eight disabled male swimmers (25.83 ± 2.93 years old, 72.45 ± 9.26 kg body mass and 1.79 ± 0.11 m of height) of the following functional classes: S6 (n = 1), S8 (n = 2) and S9 (n = 5) participated in this study. Swimmers were evaluated in the kinematic parameters <em>v</em>, stroke frequency (SF) and stroke length (SL) along with an incremental protocol of 6 x 200 m in the the crawl stroke. Data were registered in each step at the distances of 100 and 175 m. With increasing velocity, the mean values of SL decreased while the mean values of SF increased. To achieve higher swimming velocities, swimmers compensated the lack of the propulsive segment increasing SF to increase swimming speed. For the mean values of IVV at 100m distance, a decrease between the first and second levels, followed by a tendency to stabilize from the 2<sup>nd</sup> to the 6<sup>th</sup> level is presented. For the 175 m distance, there was a decrease in IVV with an increase in swimming velocity. Stroke frequency is directly related to the magnitude of IVV, which directly influences swimming performance.</p> 2018-12-16T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement##