Motricidade <p>Journal Motricidade (ISSN 1646-107X, eISSN 2182-2972) is a scientific quarterly&nbsp;journal published by <a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Desafio Singular Editions</a>. Journal Motricidade publishes relevant original research and review articles, that are methodologically sound, theoretically grounded and that will potentially contribute to the scientific areas of sports, psychology and human development, and health promoting the international debate on those themes.<br><br>It is currently indexed in some of the most influential international databases such as <strong>ISI Web of Knowledge/<em>Scielo Citation Index</em></strong> (Thomson Reuters), <strong>Elsevier </strong>(SCOPUS, EMCare), <strong>SCImago</strong> (SJR:&nbsp;Medicine, Health Professions),&nbsp;<strong>PsycINFO</strong>, IndexCopernicus, <strong>Scielo</strong>, CABI, Qualis, <strong>SPORTDiscus</strong>, EBSCO, CINAHL, Proquest, DOAJ, Redalyc, Latindex, Gale/Cengage Learning, SIIC Databases, BVS ePORTUGUESe, SHERPA/RoMEO, OCLC, Hinari/WHO, Swets Information Services, among others.<br><br>Journal Motricidade complies with the guidelines of the International Committee of the Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE) and the American Psychological Association (APA) for the presentation of scientific articles in peer reviewed journals.</p> en-US <p>The authors of submitted manuscripts must transfer the full copyright to Journal Motricidade / Desafio Singular Editions. Granting copyright permission allows the publication and dissemination of the article in printed or electronic formats and copyrights start at the moment the manuscript is accepted for publication. It also allows Journal Motricidade to use and commercialize the article in terms of licensing, lending or selling its content to indexation/abstracts databases and other entities.</p><p>According to the terms of the Creative Commons licence, authors may reproduce a reasonable number of copies for personal or professional purpose but without any economic gains. SHERPA/RoMEO allows authors to post a final digital copy (post-printing version) of the article in their websites or on their institutions' scientific repository.</p> (Nuno Garrido) (Nuno Garrido) Sun, 28 Oct 2018 01:24:36 +0000 OJS 60 Smart sport equipment: reshaping the sports landscape <p>We are witnesses of “Industry 4.0”, the 4<sup>th</sup> industrial revolution. In just a few years, we became a highly analytical society where at any given time massive datasets are produced, collected and analysed. Cities and countries have the vision of becoming smart societies, optimising the performance and wellbeing of their citizens. One can easily track and log all daily activities. The biggest challenge, though, is the management of an overwhelming amount of data.</p> <p>Sports industry is no different. Sports is a reflection of the society. Athletes (of any level, from recreational all the way up to world-ranked), patients and practitioners (Physical Education teachers, coaches, analysts, physicians, therapists, etc.) are keen to track-down analytical parameters as well. Innovation and technology can help preventing and minimising sports injuries, enhancing sports technique or aid assessing the performance delivered.</p> <p>The industry of smart sport equipment is growing up at a very fast pace. The&nbsp;number of wearable devices worldwide&nbsp;is expected to increase from 325 million in 2016 to over 830 million in 2020.&nbsp;The smart wearables for sports and fitness generated US$3.5 billion in 2014 (Market Wired, 2016). The forecast is that smart garments sector will worth about US$34 billion by 2020 (Lamkin, 2016). The smart textiles and smart fabrics market&nbsp;is expected to reach US$9.3 billion by 2024 (Grand View Research, 2015).</p> <p>These products can cater a wide range of consumers. The ones who are looking forward to more or less fashionable sportswear, sports accessories, information technology &amp; electronics consumers, etc. The common denominator among these consumers is being innovation-driven. There are commercially available smart wearables (or gear) to be used in all main sports, including aquatics, athletics, boating, cycling, gymnastics, invasion games, net sports, winter sports, and much more. Sports equipment and clothing can be instrumented with sensors, providing real-time analytical details on the subject’s behaviour and performance. Data can be logged and analysed later on. Alternatively, it can be transmitted real-time to portable terminals (smartphones, tablets, smartwatches or laptops) and displayed immediately.</p> <p>With this outlook as backdrop, there is an opportunity for sports sciences to play a key-role in the reshape of the sports landscape. Sports researchers can help on the design and validation of smart sport equipment, and be involved as end-users of these products. As end-users, sport researchers will not be spending so much time collecting and handling data. Rather, the job scope will shift more into analysis, interpretation and application of the findings. This will enable to provide swift real-time feedback to patients, athletes, coaches and others stakeholders in the sports fraternity. Data can be uploaded to a cloud and be available everywhere at any given time from any device. The design, and validation of new cutting-edge devices, of innovative solutions, are a great opportunity to bridge academia with industry. To carry out these projects is paramount to have interdisciplinary research teams with a wide array of skills, different expertise and backgrounds. The project will not end by the publication of a series of research papers. This should be followed-up by obtaining a patent. Also, it can help highly-trained graduates to join the workforce and even to foster the setup of start-ups.</p> <p>Several universities, mostly in Asia and Europe (notably the United Kingdom), are now offering courses in “Sports Technology” to undergraduate students. Some tertiary institutions, are offering also undergraduate and postgraduate programmes in this field. The curricula of such programmes touch topics such as innovation, design, and sports engineering with a strong emphasis in sport sciences. Sports technology is an exciting, cutting-edge and reasonable new field. Moreover, it is possible to set a pathway between academia (research and teaching) and industry (services). Ultimately, it is deemed to provide an added economical return to society, which one should not disregard.</p> Tiago Barbosa ##submission.copyrightStatement## Wed, 17 Oct 2018 00:00:00 +0100 The practice of dance as extracurricular activity is related to higher motivation and physical activity level in students <p>The aim of the current study is to compare motivation, self-concept and physical activity level between students practicing dance as extracurricular activity and those who do not. The total of 200 students (mean age 8 ± 0.8 years) divided in two groups participated in the experiment: a) physical education (PE) and b) physical education combined with dance practices (PEDP). Two questionnaires were used, one for the parents (Schooling - Economic stratum) and one for students. The students’ questionnaire consisted of a structured interview divided in four parts: a) General information; b) Motivation; c) Self-concept; and d) Physical activity level. Descriptive and inferential statistics were used. Results showed that students in the PEDP group were more motivated by Status (p = 0.049) and General Affiliation (p = 0.010), whereas 88% of the students in the PE group showed higher social self-concept (p = 0.010). With respect to physical activity level, 100% (p = 0.000) of students in the PEDP group were active and showed screen time 3.88 hours per day (p = 0.000). It was possible concluding that students in the PEDP group showed higher motivation and physical activity level than those in the PE group, who showed better self-concept.</p> Allana Freitas da Rosa, Nycolle Martins Reis, Melissa de Carvalho Souza Vieira, Alexandra Folle, Adriana Coutinho de Azevedo Guimarães ##submission.copyrightStatement## Mon, 22 Oct 2018 00:00:00 +0100 Futsal as a strategy for the improvement of elementary abilities and for the development of the body image in children <p>This current study aims to analyze the contribution of futsal practice in global praxis and body image in children in a specialized motor stage, evaluating the motor performance before and after an intervention in the following factors: hands and feet global praxis and body image. It was adopted the application method of 18 one-hour twice a week session, divided into three modules, I) displacement activities in different directions; II) coordination activities and reaction time and III) throwing and kicking activities. Twenty male participants, aged 8 to 12 years, with normal motor development were used. The survey was conducted at a private school. The results found were a significant improvement in the hits of the tennis balls with hands and make the number of hits in kicking the ball with his feet. Regarding the analysis of body image after the proposed intervention, the children has shown the body parts performance incorporated in drawings that were not previously present. It is concluded that there are positive contributions of the futsal practice in respect to the global praxis practice and body image in children in a specialized motor stage.</p> Amanda A. Machado, Ingrid S. Bezerra, Katia Regina Ponciano, Roberta L. Rica, Eliane F. Gama, Aylton Figueira Junior, Roberto Gimenez, Danilo Sales Bocalini ##submission.copyrightStatement## Wed, 17 Oct 2018 00:00:00 +0100 Perceived Risk Questionnaire in Canyoners: content validity, cross-validation and transcultural invariance across Portugal and Spain <p>The aim of this study was to develop and validate a questionnaire related to the risk perception in canyoning. Cross-validation and transcultural invariance, across Portugal and Spain, were also analysed. A total of 707 canyoners (81.3% males, 18.7% females) from Portugal (47.5%) and Spain (52.5%) participated in this study, with ages between 18 and 57 years old (M = 36.13; SD = 7.71). The initial version of questionnaire had 49 items. With the Temporal Reliability Analysis, the items that showed no correlation between the two moments of the administration of the questionnaire, p&gt;.05, were removed and only 46 items remained. The Exploratory Factor Analysis was developed by choosing the 25 items with higher factorial weight. Six dimensions were found which we managed to identify and characterise with the help of literature. With the Confirmatory Factor Analysis and based on the analysis of the modification indices, 4 items were eliminated, as they presented very high residual values, which contributed to an inadequacy of the model. In this manner, a questionnaire with 21 items was achieved. The final version of the questionnaire showed acceptable values related to reliability and construct validation. Therefore, this allows it to be used in the risk perception in canyoning, with 21 items, distributed among 6 dimensions.</p> António Brandão, Diogo Monteiro, Joel Pereira, Eduarda Coelho, Luís Quaresma ##submission.copyrightStatement## Wed, 17 Oct 2018 00:00:00 +0100 Determination of the tactical athlete level of a high-performance tennis team and subjective assessment of the coach <p>The objective of the study was to evaluate the level of tactical knowledge of a high-performance tennis team, considering gender, age, category, and year in the category, years of practice and participation in competitions. There was also a subjective evaluation by two coaches on the level of athletic performance of their athletes, as well as that of the athletes themselves. In the sample, there were 37 athletes, 23 men and 14 women at ages between 11 and 18 years old (14.10 ± 1.90). In order to determine the level of athletic performance of the athletes, the test of declarative tactical knowledge (DTK) in tennis was used. The variables to differentiate the level of tactical performance were gender (female achieved better scores: <em>p</em>=0.004, F = 2.242), the category (better scores for 18 years old compared to 12 years old: <em>p</em>=0.007, F= 4.223) and the experience in state competitions (<em>p</em> = 0.042, F = 3.059). It was observed that 73% of the tennis teams had their level of tactical performance, via DTK, classified as good or very good. In the subjective evaluation, the coach underestimated the tactical level of 48.6% of his athletes, while 75.7% of the athletes overestimated their own knowledge. In this study, it was verified that factors like gender, category and experience in state competitions differentiated the level of tactical performance.</p> <p><span lang="EN-US">&nbsp;</span></p> Layla Maria Campos Aburachid, Breno Tavares Perdigão Mendes, Tatiane Mazzardo, Gabriella Nelli Monteiro, Nayanne Dias Araújo, Pablo Juan Greco ##submission.copyrightStatement## Sun, 28 Oct 2018 00:06:20 +0100 Relationship between shoulder pain and weight of shoulder bags in young women <p>The present study aimed to assess the relationship between shoulder pain and weight of shoulder bags in young women. Cross-sectional study conducted with 316 women aged 18-35 years from February 2013 to July 2014. A questionnaire was used to collect demographic data and information on physical activity, sleeping habits, presence of pain and its characteristics, use of bags, and percentage of bag weight–body weight ratio (%bagweight). Pearson’s chi-squared test and Mann-Whitney test were used to check for associations between the dependent variable (presence of pain) and the independent variables, with a significance level of 5% (p&lt;0.05). In all, 195 (61.7%) women complained of shoulder pain. These women carried heavier shoulder bags (p=0.01), weighing circa 4.02% of their body weight (p=0.050), and the pain was proportional to a higher bag weight (p=0.023) compared to the painless group. Lack of physical activity and inadequate sleep position influenced the occurrence of shoulder pain (p=0.008 and p=0.017, respectively). The weight of the shoulder bag represented a risk factor for the onset of shoulder pain and women should not carry bags weighing more than 4% of their body weight.</p> Ana Paula Vasconcellos Abdon, Thais Erica Gonçalves Moraes, Mayara Prado e Sales, Renata dos Santos Vasconcelos, Ticiana Sampaio Braga, Thais Sousa Pinto Ferreira, Daniela Gardano Burchales Mont’Alverne ##submission.copyrightStatement## Fri, 19 Oct 2018 00:00:00 +0100 Clarifying the influence of sport education on basic psychological need satisfaction in high school students <p>Based on Self-Determination Theory, this research aimed to examine la influence of Sport Education on basic psychological need satisfaction in the sport teaching-learning process that takes place in Physical Education. The participants were 44 high school students (22 men and 22 women; <em>M<sub>age</sub> </em>= 16.32<em>, SD<sub>age</sub> </em>= 0.57) and 2 Physical Education pre-service teachers. The design was a quasi-experimental study with, a priori, non-equivalent control group using pre- and post- intervention measures and intra- and inter- analyses. The intervention consisted of 12 basketball sessions both for the experimental group (<em>n</em> = 22), which developed Sport Education, and for the control group (<em>n</em> = 22), which developed the traditional teaching. The results showed that Sport Education significantly improved the levels of autonomy, competence and relatedness need satisfaction in the inter-group analysis and in the intra-group analysis. In its conclusion, the suitability of Sport Education to contribute developing students’ basic psychological need satisfaction in the sport teaching-learning process in Physical Education was indicated.</p> Rafael Burgueño, Belén Cueto-Martín, Esther Morales-Ortiz, Payla Cristina Silva, Jesus Medina-Casaubón ##submission.copyrightStatement## Fri, 19 Oct 2018 00:00:00 +0100 Physical activity, fatigue and quality of life during a clinical adjuvant treatment of breast cancer: a comparative study <p>It was our objective to compare the physical activity, fatigue and quality of life of patients during breast cancer treatment and to investigate the association between these variables. Participated in this study 122 women in clinical treatment at the Cancer Research Center (CEPON) in Florianópolis, SC. We used a questionnaire with general information, physical activity (IPAQ - short), fatigue (Piper fatigue) and quality of life (EORTC QLQ - C30). One-way ANOVA with Scheffe's post-hoc, Chi-square, and univariate and multiple linear regression (p &lt;0.05) were used. It was observed a greater walking time and total physical activity for the patients in the hormone therapy. In the fatigue, worse scores were presented by the patients in the chemotherapy. In the quality of life, there was a difference in the symptomatic scale, with worse scores on the subscales of nausea and vomiting, pain and loss of appetite for patients on chemotherapy and constipation for radiotherapy. It was identified an association between the increase of the physical activity with the improvement of the physical, social function and symptoms of the fatigue, regardless of the type of treatment or age. Patients in the hormone therapy practiced more physical activity, and those in chemotherapy had worse side effects. It is necessary to encourage physical activity during treatment, since benefits in quality of life and fatigue are evidenced.</p> Leonessa Boing, Tatiana de Bem Fretta, Melissa de Carvalho Souza Vieira, Luiza Andreatta Denig, Anke Bergmann, Adriana Coutinho de Azevedo Guimarães ##submission.copyrightStatement## Sun, 28 Oct 2018 00:00:00 +0100 The performance of children and adolescents with low vision on the Pediatric Balance Scale <p>The aim of this study was to investigate the performance of children and adolescents with low vision on the Pediatric Balance Scale (PBS), in different age groups. The PBS was administered to 41 subjects, aged 5 to 14 years, with low vision and no other associated disorders. The Spearman correlation coefficient was used for correlation between age and the score achieved on the scale. There was a correlation of 0.52 between the score obtained on the PBS and the age. The variation of score was greater in children between 5 to 7 years and minimal in older age groups. The maximum score was obtained by all the subjects on six items of the scale. The PBS score had significant correlation with age up to a point, reaching ceiling effect on various items. It showed to be an easy application screening tool in children and adolescents with low vision, being more suitable for children 5-7 years old.</p> Agda Cristina de Sousa Santos, Hanne Alves Bakke, Ilana Santos de Oliveira, Silvia Warnick Sarinho ##submission.copyrightStatement## Fri, 19 Oct 2018 00:00:00 +0100 Approach to management by processes in a sports department of a local government organization <p>The strategy creates assumptions that should reflect the organization and the surrounding environment. The difficulties in the operationalization of the strategy and the lack of resources for the nonprofit sports organization require effective approaches. This study uses the Business Process Management to support the strategy operationalization using improvement actions according to the existing circumstances of each organization. Based on the action research we analyze the existing situation of nonprofit sports organizations and identify the line of actions to achieve the municipality intended outcomes. The lack of financial resources requires the identification of improvements according to the existing resources. The assessment of the concerns and issues related to stakeholders provides a mechanism to clarify which improvement action should be developed considering the involvement of different board members of the organization. The manager training in nonprofit organizations is an important area to target actions to contribute to the development of the nonprofit organizations, increasing their knowledge. Our findings highlight how the proposed approach can be used in nonprofit sports organization to develop an action plan to engage their business objectives according to its environment.</p> Pedro Alexandre Sobreiro, Rita Santos-Rocha, Rui Claudino, António Serôdio ##submission.copyrightStatement## Sun, 28 Oct 2018 00:32:27 +0100 Autonomy support in the aquatic motivational healthy program through the SDT <p>This study aimed to test an aquatic motivation healthy program based on the self determination theory (SDT), using a quasi-experimental study. The research data come from different physical, psycho-social and behavioral measures made on 49 women. The sample was divided into two groups, an experimental group consisting of 28 women (M= 43.64; SD= 12.06), with an average experience of 3.05 years, and a control group composed of 21 women (M= 47.14; SD= 10.01), with an average experience of 2.29 years doing physical exercise in an aquatic environment in a large Spanish city. After the intervention with a program based on the SDT and instructor’s autonomy support, both groups perceived physical benefits for health, but the experimental group perceived a better instructor’s autonomy support, a better relationship with others and a greater psychological well-being among the practitioners. The information offered in this study may be of interest to promote for instructor part, these type the aquatic physical exercise programs in favor of the population’s health.</p> Ricardo Zazo Sánchez-Mateos, Fernando Peruyero, Juan Antonio Moreno Murcia ##submission.copyrightStatement## Sun, 28 Oct 2018 00:36:39 +0100 Bandwidth knowledge of results persists on motor skills acquisition <p>The aim of this study was to investigate the short and long-term effects of the bandwidth KR in learning of the absolute and relative dimensions of a motor skill. Twenty-two undergraduate students divided into two groups: G15 who received KR when the relative error exceeded 15%; and G0, with KR after every trial. The study consisted of an acquisition phase, and the volunteers practiced 100 trials with a target time of 850 ms and relative of 22.2%, 44.4% and 33.3% between the first and second, second and third, third and fourth keys, respectively. This phase, KR related to relative time (relative error) was provided according to the group. KR of total target time was available to both groups after all trials. Three retention tests with ten trials were conducted 10 minutes, 24 hours and one week after the acquisition phase. The results showed that G15 had a smaller relative error than G0. This study allows concluding that bandwidth KR in relation relative time error showed its effects in the consistency of relative time. These effects persisted even after seven days after the acquisition phase in a delayed retention test.</p> Madson Pereira Cruz, Rodolfo Novellino Benda, Maria Flávia Soares Pinto Carvalho, Guilherme Menezes Lage, Maria Teresa Cattuzzo, Herbert Ugrinowitsch ##submission.copyrightStatement## Wed, 17 Oct 2018 00:00:00 +0100 Reference values for Cobb angles when evaluating the spine in the sagittal plane: a systematic review with meta-analysis <p>The present systematic review of observational studies with meta-analysis aim to identify the reference values of the spinal curvatures in the sagittal plane, as evaluated using the Cobb angle in X-rays, in healthy individuals. Electronic searches were undertaken in MEDLINE, Scopus, ScienceDirect and LILACS. Studies that evaluated the spinal curvature of healthy children, adolescents, adults, and elderly using Cobb method and presented reference values for those curvatures were incluced. Thirty-one studies were eligible for inclusion. The reference values found (confidence interval 95%) were: for children, thoracic (28.7°-37.9°), lumbar L1-L5 (34.5<sup>o</sup>-44.8º), and lumbar L1-S1 (41.7<sup>o</sup>-54.1<sup>o</sup>); for adolescents: thoracic (31.5<sup>o</sup>-39.2<sup>o</sup>), lumbar L1-L5 (39.8<sup>o</sup>-45.6<sup>o</sup>), and lumbar L1-S1 (51.9<sup>o</sup>-59.1<sup>o</sup>); for adults: thoracic (33.7<sup>o</sup>-40.3<sup>o</sup>), lumbar L1-L5 (38.1<sup>o</sup>-45.6<sup>o</sup>), and lumbar L1-S1 (54.2<sup>o</sup>-61.7<sup>o</sup>); and for the elderly: thoracic (37.7º-50.4<sup>o</sup>), and lumbar L1-S1 (56.6º-65.9<sup>o</sup>). For the cervical region, it was impossible to establish consistent reference values. The present study supports that precise reference intervals were identified for the sagittal curvatures of the thoracic and lumbar spine in healthy children, adolescents, adults and elderly, as evaluated by means of the Cobb Method.</p> Tássia Silveira Furlanetto, Juliana Adami Sedrez, Cláudia Tarragô Candotti, Jefferson Fagundes Loss ##submission.copyrightStatement## Mon, 22 Oct 2018 00:00:00 +0100 Post-exercise effects of graduated compression garment use on skeletal muscle recovery and delayed onset muscle soreness: a systematic review <p>The study aimed to review the literature on the effects related to post-exercise of graduated compression garments (GCGs) use on muscle recovery and delayed onset muscle soreness. The search was performed in Pubmed/Medline, Bireme, Scielo, and Lilacs electronic databases using the following descriptors in English: "compression clothing", "physical exercise", "recovery", "physical activity", "compression stockings" and "delayed onset muscle soreness". The search resulted in 102 articles and after removing duplicates, applying exclusion criteria and checking the reference lists, nine studies fulfilled the criteria and were included in the review. Seven studies associated the use of GCGs with reduction of delayed muscle soreness and improvement in performance after the use of compression clothes. However, the methodological quality of the studies, using PEDro scale, presented an average of 5.1±0.9 points (out of a total of 11 points), classified as intermediate. In conclusion, although the positive effects of using CGCs on improving recovery and reduction of delayed muscle soreness after physical exercises are almost consensual, the insufficient methodological quality of the included studies requires careful consideration of the results.</p> Aline Machado Araujo, Rodrigo Kohn Cardoso, Airton José Rombaldi ##submission.copyrightStatement## Sat, 27 Oct 2018 00:00:00 +0100 Proceedings of the XLI Technical and Scientific Congress of the Portuguese Association of Swimming Technicians <p><span style="font-size: 9.0pt; line-height: 115%; font-family: 'Arial',sans-serif;" lang="EN-GB">Os trabalhos publicados no presente suplemento foram submetidos à apreciação da Comissão Científica do 41º Congresso Técnico e Científico da Associação Portuguesa de Técnicos de Natação - APTN realizado nos dias 28 e 29 de abril de 2018 no Município de Braga. O conteúdo dos artigos é única e exclusivamente da responsabilidade dos seus autores. A Comissão Científica da APTN não assume qualquer tipo de responsabilidade pelas opiniões e afirmações expressas pelos autores. É permitida a reprodução parcial dos textos e sua utilização sem fins comerciais, desde que devidamente citada a fonte/referência.</span></p> Aldo Matos Costa, Nuno Domingos Garrido, Mário Jorge Costa, Ana Teresa Conceição ##submission.copyrightStatement## Fri, 26 Oct 2018 00:00:00 +0100