Fixed matches in Portugal – myths, perceptions and attitudes: a study focusing on referees and fans
AbstractThe paper presents data about opinions and perception of Portuguese football referees and supporters about manipulation of results, ones of the main problems of football worldwide. Analysts often link the problem with organized crime and sporting betting. In Portugal, however, recent scandals indicate that manipulation would be mostly connected with sporting interest, influence peddling and bribing from managers and officials. In the public opinion, referees appear as the most suspicious and denounced group. Through surveys of members of the Portuguese Football Referees Association (APAF) and supporters, the paper empirically confirms some assumptions of the official match-fixing narrative, like the existence of offers of prostitutes to referees. Nevertheless, it shows a wider perspective of the phenomenon that goes beyond the betting sphere and organized crime. In depth interviews to key informants were carried out to confirm and extend the results.
Authors who publish in this Journal must agree the following terms and conditions:
- Authors retain copyright and grant the Journal the right to first publication, while simultaneously agreeing to a Creative Commons Attribution License, which allows others to share their work on condition that they cite the original author(s) and recognise that the latter’s work was first published in this Journal.
- Authors are authorised to enter into additional contracts separately, for non-exclusive distribution of the version of the work that is published in this Journal (e.g. publication in an institutional repository or as a book chapter), subject to recognition of initial publication in this Journal.