Urban SUNstainability: a multi-dimensional policy evaluation framework proposal
This paper discusses the concept of Urban SUNstainability and its importance for territorial sustainable development. Generically understood as a process for attaining sustainable development in urban areas, via the intense production and use of solar energy, Urban SUNstainability is presented as a convincing urban policy strategy for a greener, sustainable and prosperous world. Based on existing experiences in areas with abundant levels of solar radiation, it was found that, by now, the use and production of solar energy in urban areas starts to be economically viable, and should be regarded as an adequate solution to implement a greener and sustainable territorial development process in urban areas. As a way to assess the potential and current levels of Urban SUNstainability in urban areas, the paper proposes a multi-dimensional policy evaluation framework, based on five crucial aspects: the solar energy generation capacity, the direct and indirect environmental, economic and social benefits from implementing Urban SUNstainability strategies, and the soundness and effectiveness of the urban planning and governance processes related to the implementation of this process.
Battarra, R.; Fistola, R.; & La Rocca. R.A. (2016) City SmartNESS: the Energy Dimension of the Urban System, In Papa, R.; & Fistola, R. (ed.) (2016) Smart Energy in the Smart City Urban Planning for a Sustainable Future. Springer, Cham; pp.1-23.
Bolger, K.; Doyon, A. (2019) Circular cities: exploring local government strategies to facilitate a circular economy, European Planning Studies, DOI: 10.1080/09654313.2019.1642854
Bothwell, K. (2015) Sustainable architecture, Redclift, M.; & Springett, D. (ed.) Routledge International Handbook of Sustainable Development, Routledge, London: pp- 147-163.
Caprotti, F.; Bailey, I. (2014) Making sense of the green economy, Geografiska Annaler: Series B, Human Geography, 96:3, 195-200.
Castillon, C. Silva, F.; & Lavalle, C. (2016) An assessment of the regional potential for solar power generation in EU-28, Energy Policy, 88 (2016): 86-99.
Chow, A.; Li, S.; & Fung A. (2016) Modeling urban solar energy with high spatiotemporal resolution: A case study in Toronto, Canada, International Journal of Green Energy, 13(11): 1090-1101.
Dahal, K.; Niemelä, J.; & Juhola, S. (2017) The role of solar energy for carbon neutrality in Helsinki Metropolitan area, Cogent Environmental Science 2017 (3): 1-17.
Delucchi, M.; & Jacobson, M. (2013) Meeting the world’s energy needs entirely with wind, water, and solar power, Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists, 69(4): 30-40.
EC (2010) EUROPE 2020. A strategy for smart, sustainable and inclusive growth, Communication from the European Commission COM(2010) 2020 final, Brussels.
EC (2015a) A Framework Strategy for a Resilient Energy Union with a Forward-Looking Climate. Change Policy. Communication from the European Commission (COM/2015/080 final), Brussels.
EC (2015b) Closing the loop - An EU action plan for the Circular Economy, Communication from the European Commission COM(2015) 614 final, Brussels.
Faludi, A. (2010) Cohesion, Coherence, Cooperation: European Spatial Planning Coming of Age?, Routledge, London.
Faludi, A. (ed.) (2018) The Poverty of Territorialism. A Neo-Medieval View of Europe and European Planning, Edward Elgar, Cheltenham.
Govada, S.; Spruijt, W.; & Rodgers, T. (2017) Assessing Hong Kong as a Smart City, in Kumar, V. (ed.) Smart Economy in Smart Cities, Springer, Singapore: 199-228.
Hatti, M. (ed.) (2019) Renewable Energy for Smart and Sustainable Cities. Artificial Intelligence in Renewable Energetic Systems, Springer, Cham.
IRA (2016) IRENA. Renewable energy in cities. International Renewable Agency, Abu Dhabi.
Jacobson, M. Howarth R., Delucchi M.; et al. (2013) Examining the feasibility of converting New York States all-purpose energy infrastructure to one using wind, water, and sunlight, Energy Policy, 57 (June): 585-601.
Kanters, J.; & Wall, M. (2014) The impact of urban design decisions on net zero energy solar buildings in Sweden, Urban, Planning and Transport Research, 2(1): 312-332.
Kar, A. K., et al. (ed.) (2017) Advances in smart cities: smarter people, governance and solutions, CRC Press, New York.
Kara, O.; & Ozalp, C. (2017) The global solar radiation estimation and analysis of solar energy: Case study for Osmaniye, Turkey, International Journal of Green Energy, 14(9): 765-773.
Ko, Y.; Jang, K.; & Radke, J. (2017) Toward a solar city: Trade-offs between on-site solar energy potential and vehicle energy consumption in San Francisco, California, International Journal of Sustainable Transportation, 11(6): 460-470.
Kopp, T. (1994) Solar Energy Storage, Structural Engineering International, 4(2): 108-111.
Koutitas, G. (2018) The Smart Grid: Anchor of the Smart City, in McClellan, S; Jimenez, J.; & Koutitas, G. (ed.) Smart Cities Applications, Technologies, Standards, and Driving Factors, Springer, Cham: pp. 53-74.
LC (2007) Leipzig Charter on Sustainable European Cities, 24/25 May, Leipzig.
Mafimidiwo, O.; & Saha, A. (2017) Generating optimum solar output energy with three-dimensional photovoltaic system – the effect of solar radiation, African Journal of Science, Technology, Innovation and Development, 9(4): 417-424.
Maltese, I; Mariotti, I.; & Boscacci, F. (2016) Smart City, Urban Performance and Energy, In Papa, R.; & Fistola, R. (ed.) (2016) Smart Energy in the Smart City Urban Planning for a Sustainable Future, Springer, Cham; pp.23-42.
Medeiros, E.; van der Zwet, A. (2019) Evaluating integrated sustainable urban development strategies: a methodological framework applied in Portugal, European Planning Studies, https://doi.org/10.1080/09654313.2019.1606898.
Medeiros, E.; Rauhut, D. (2018) Territorial Cohesion Cities: a policy recipe for achieving Territorial Cohesion? Regional Studies - https://doi.org/10.1080/00343404.2018.1548764.
Papamanolis, N. (2016) An overview of solar energy applications in buildings in Greece, International Journal of Sustainable Energy, 35(8): 814-823.
Park, D.; & Eissel, D. (2010) Alternative Energy Policies in Germany with particular Reference to Solar Energy, Journal of Contemporary European Studies, 18(3):323-339.
Pelton, J.; & Singh, I. (2019) Smart Cities of Today and Tomorrow. Better Technology, Infrastructure and Security, Springer, Cham.
Pitt, D.; Michaud, G.; & Duggan, A. (2018) Analyzing the costs and benefits of distributed solar energy in Virginia (USA): a case study of collaborative energy planning, Journal of Environmental Planning and Management, 61(11): 2032-2049.
Potter R.; Binns, T.; Elliott, J.; Smith, D (2008) Geographies of Development. An Introduction to Development Studies, Third Edition, Pearson Education Limited, Essex.
Praß, J. et al. (2017) Smart Energy and Grid: Novel Approaches for the Efficient Generation, Storage, and Usage of Energy in the Smart Home and the Smart Grid Linkup, In Song, H. et al. (ed.) Smart Cities Foundations, Principles, and Applications, JohnWiley & Sons, Hoboken.
Quirós, E.; Pozo, M.; & Ceballos, J. (2018) Solar potential of rooftops in Cáceres city, Spain, Journal of Maps, 14(1): 44-51.
Sachs, F. (2015) The age of sustainable development, Columbia University Press, New York.
Siemens (2009) European Green City Index. Assessing the environmental impact of Europe’s major cities, Munich.
Spataru, C.; Koch, A.; Bouffaron, P. (2015) Multi-Scale, Multi- Dimensional Modelling of Future Energy Systems, in Vesco, A.; Ferrero, F. (ed.) Handbook of Research on Social, Economic, and Environmental Sustainability in the Development of Smart Cities, IGI Global, Hershey, pp: 113-135.
Spiess, T., & De Sousa, C. (2016) Barriers to renewable energy development on brownfields. Journal of environmental policy & planning, 18(4): 507-534
Steffen, B.; Schmidt, T.; & Tautorat, P. (2019) Measuring whether municipal climate networks make a difference: the case of utility-scale solar PV investment in large global cities, Climate Policy, 19(7): 908-922.
Stimmel, C. (2016) Building Smart Cities Analytics, ICT, and Design Thinking, CRC Press
Tamburini, L.; Rossi, M.; Brunelli, D. (2015) Electronic and ICT Solutions for Smart Buildings and Urban Areas, in Vesco, A.; Ferrero, F. (ed.) Handbook of Research on Social, Economic, and Environmental Sustainability in the Development of Smart Cities, IGI Global, Hershey, pp:165-191
TE (2019) Green New Deals. The obstacle course, The Economist, 432(9161): 31-32.
Territorial Agenda (2007) Territorial Agenda of the European Union: Towards a More Competitive and Sustainable Europe of Diverse Regions, Agreed at the Occasion of the Informal Ministerial Meeting on Urban Development and Territorial Cohesion on 24/25 May, Leipzig, Federal Republic of Germany. http://www.eu-territorial-agenda.eu/Reference%20Documents/Territorial-Agenda-of-the-European-Union-Agreed-on-25-May-2007.pdf.
Territorial Agenda 2020 (2011) Territorial Agenda of the European Union 2020 - Towards an Inclusive, Smart and Sustainable Europe of Diverse Regions, Agreed at the Informal Ministerial Meeting of Ministers Responsible for Spatial Planning and Territorial Development on 19th May, Hungary: Gödöllő. http://www.eu-territorial-agenda.eu/Reference%20Documents/Territorial-Agenda-of-the-European-Union-Agreed-on-25-May-2007.pdf.
Trancik, J. E. (2014) Renewable energy: Back the renewables boom. Nature, 507(7492): 300–302.
UN (1987) Report of the World Commission on Environment and Development: Our Common Future, United Nations, New York.
UN (2016) Transforming our world: the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development, United Nations, New York.
Urban Agenda (2016) Urban Agenda for the EU ‘Pact of Amsterdam’, European Programme for Sustainable Urban Development, Brussels.
Vesco, A.; Ferrero, F. (eds) (2015) Handbook of Research on Social, Economic, and Environmental Sustainability in the Development of Smart Cities, IGI Global, Hershey.
Vidican, G. (2015) The emergence of a solar energy innovation system in Morocco: a governance perspective, Innovation and Development, 5(2): 225-240.
Warf, B.; Stutz, B. (2012) The World Economy. Geography, Business, Development, Prentice Hall. Sixth Edition, New York.
Zahran, S.; Brody, S.; Vedlitz, A.; Lacy, M.; & Schelly, C. (2008) Greening Local Energy: Explaining the Geographic Distribution of Household Solar Energy Use in the United States, Journal of the American Planning Association, 74(4): 419-434.
Copyright (c) 2020 Eduardo Medeiros
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.Cidades, Comunidades e Territórios by DINÂMIA'CET-IUL is licensed under a Creative Commons Atribuição-Uso Não-Comercial-Proibição de realização de Obras Derivadas 4.0 Unported License.
Permissions beyond the scope of this license may be available at mailto:email@example.com.