Housing policies, market and home ownership in Portugal
Beyond the cultural model
This article takes up the context of literature production on the characteristics that are most commonly associated with housing systems in Southern European countries, namely, the low weight of public housing supply, the large share of home ownership and a considerable number of second homes and vacant dwellings. This theme, highly debated in the first decade of the 20th century, questioned the significance of the Southern European countries, with lower income households, those which had (and still have) the highest percentages of home ownership. The sociological reflection developed on the relationship between the specificity of the Portuguese development model (and housing policies) and the high rate of property ownership aims to go beyond comparative research on Southern European countries, generally based on typologies that emphasize the causal relationship between property rates and the type of welfare regime. One of the objectives is to understand the structural factors of this situation. Throughout the text we point out four phenomena that have shaped the Portuguese housing system, with an impact on the property regime. Through them one can recognize that access to home ownership is not only a public intention and an economic pressure from the market, but is also anchored in the expectations of families, for whom housing assumes a complex political, economic and symbolic role. We argue that the articulation between these phenomena represents a "happy joint venture" between Families, State and Market.
For families, this form of access to housing seems to function not only as an attachment to property, as part of a specific cultural model, as is usually a hallmark of Southern European countries, but also translates an economic rationale and a source of security, in a context of an unstable labour market, low income and weak social protection.
Aabers, M.B. (2016) The Financialization of Housing: A Political Economy Approach, London, Routledge.
Allen, J. (2006) “Welfare Regimes, Welfare Systems and Housing in Southern Europe”, International Journal of Housing Policy, 6: 3, pp. 251-277.
Allen, J., Barlow, J., Leal, J., Maloutas, T., Padovani, L. (2004) Housing and Welfare in Southern Europe, Oxford: Blackwell.
Blackwell, T., Sebastian K. (2019) “Historicizing housing typologies: beyond welfare state regimes and varieties of residential capitalism”, Housing Studies, 34:2, pp.298-318.
Castles, F. G., Ferrera, M. (1996) “Home ownership and welfare: Is Southern Europe different?”, South European Society and Politics, 1(2), 163-185.
Conley, D., Gifford, B. (2006) “Home Ownership, Social Insurance, and the Welfare State”, Sociological Forum, Vol. 21: 1, pp.55-82.
Crouch, C. (2009) “Privatized Keynesianism: An Unacknowledged Policy Regime”, British Journal of Politics and International Relations, 11(3), pp.382-399. Available at http://www.mpi-fg-koeln.mpg.de/pu/oa_wiss_pub/BJPIR_11_2009_Crouch.pdf.
Doling, J., Ronald, R. (2010) “Home ownership and asset-based welfare”, Journal of Housing and the Built Environment, 25(2) pp. 165-173.
Doling, J. (2012) “Housing and demoChart change”, in R. Ronald, M. Elsinga (eds.), Beyond home ownership. Housing, welfare and society, London, Routledge, pp. 31-50.
Fernandez, R., Aalbers, M. (2016) “Financialization and housing: Between globalization and Varieties of Capitalism”, Competition & Change, Vol. 20(2) 71-88.
Ferreira, F. (1987) Por uma Nova Política de Habitação, Lisboa, Edições Afrontamento.
Forrest, R., Murie, A. (1988) Selling the Welfare State: The Privatization of Public Housing, London, Routledge.
EUROSTAT, European Union Statistics on Income and Living Conditions (EU-SILC data sets).
Guerra, I. (2011) “As Politicas de habitação em Portugal: à procura de novos caminhos”, CIDADES, Comunidades e Territórios, 22, pp. 41-68.
Harloe, M. (1995) The People’s Home: Social Rented – Housing in Europe and America. Oxford, Blackwell.
IHRU (2015) 1987-2011: 24 anos de esforço do Orçamento do Estado com Habitação, Lisboa, Edição IHRU, Março 2015.
INE, Estatísticas da Construção e da Habitação, 2000-2012.
Kemeny, J. (1981) The myth of home ownership, London, Routledge & Kegan.
Kemeny, J. (1992) Housing and Social Theory, New York, Routledge.
Kemeny, J. (1995) From Public Housing to the Social Market: rental policy strategies in comparative perspective, London, Routledge.
Kemeny, J. (2001) "Comparative housing and welfare: theorizing the relationship", Journal of Housing and the Built Environment, 16(1). pp.53-7.
Kemeny, J. (2006) “Corporatism and housing regimes”, Housing, Theory and Society, 23(1), pp. 1-18.
Kemeny, J. (2013) Housing and Social Theory, New York, Routledge.
Ministério do Plano e Coordenação Económica (s.d.) Plano de Médio Prazo, V. 1, Propostas de Lei do Plano.
Mok F., Lee, J. (2013) “Just Housing Policy: Is There a Moral Foundation for a Home ownership Policy?”, Housing Studies, 28(6), pp 891-909.
PORDATA, Base de dados Portugal contemporâneo.
Pinto, T.C., Guerra, I. (2013) “Some structural and emergent trends in Social Housing in Portugal. Rethinking housing policies in times of crisis”, CIDADES, Comunidades e Territórios, 27, pp. 1-21.
Pinto, T.C. (2017) “Moving to a new housing pattern? New trends in housing supply and demand in times of changing. The Portuguese case”, Critical Housing Analysis, Vol 4, Issue 1, pp. 231-141.
Ronald, R., Elsinga, M. (eds) (2012) Beyond Home Ownership: Housing, Welfare and Society, London and New York, Routledge.
Ronald, R. (2012) “Family property wealth and the new welfare state”, HOUWEL working paper series, Working paper 1, Centre for Urban Studies, Amsterdam.
Ronald, R. (2013) “Housing and welfare in Western Europe: transformations and challenges for the social rented sector”, LHI Journal of Land, Housing and Urban Affairs, 4(1) pp. 1-13.
Santos, A.C., Teles, N., Serra, N. (2014) “Finança e Habitação em Portugal”, Cadernos do Observatório Sobre Crises e Alternativas, nº 2.
Sousa Santos, B. (1985) “Estado e Sociedade na semiperiferia do Sistema Mundial: o caso português, Análise Social, XXI, (87-88-89), pp.869-876.
Watson, M. (2009) “Planning for the future of asset-based welfare? New Labour, Financialized economic agency and housing market”, Planning, Practice and Research 24(1), pp.41-56.
Copyright (c) 2019 Teresa Costa Pinto, Isabel Guerra
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.Cidades, Comunidades e Territórios by DINÂMIA'CET-IUL is licensed under a Creative Commons Atribuição-Uso Não-Comercial-Proibição de realização de Obras Derivadas 4.0 Unported License.
Permissions beyond the scope of this license may be available at mailto:email@example.com.