Effects of Water Immersion on Cardiac Responses in People Living With HIV at Rest and During Exercise
Keywords:Aids, Physical Exercise, Immersion, heart rate, Autonomic Nervous System
The present research aimed to compare the HRV of people living with HIV (PLWH) with non-infected individuals in aquatic and dryland environments. Twenty participants were divided into two groups. PLWH composed the experimental group (EG), and seronegative participants composed the control group (CG). In dryland, HRV was measured in time and frequency domains, as follows: 10 minutes in rest (RES), 20 minutes of moderate and intense aerobic exercise (EXE), and 30 minutes post-exercise recovery (REC). After 72 hours, the same procedures were repeated in the aquatic environment. HRV analysis demonstrated significant differences in Mean r-r (Δ%= 3.5%, p<0,01) and rMSSD (Δ%= -19.4%, p<0.05) when compared dryland vs aquatic environment in RES. We observed similar results in rMSSD (Δ%= 49.2%, p<0.01), pNN50(%) (Δ%= 79.1%, p<0.01), and SD1 (Δ%= 49.3%, p<0.01), during REC. Significant differences (p<0.01) were also demonstrated for the HF during RES (Δ%= -43.4%) and REC (Δ%= -28.8%). However, the EG intra-group analysis showed no significant differences. The inter-group analysis at RES in dryland demonstrated significant differences in rMSSD (Δ%= -36.5%, p<0.05), pNN50(%) (Δ%= -54.8%, p<0.05), and SD1 (Δ%= 46.5%, p<0.05). We also observed significant differences in mean R-R intervals (Δ%= -17.8%, p<0.01), SDNN (Δ%= -41.2%, p<0.01), rMSSD (Δ%= -50.5%, p<0.01), pNN50 (Δ%= -73.6%, p<0.001), and SD1 (Δ%= -50.4%, p<0.001) during water immersion as well as the HF (Δ%= -67.6%, p<0.01). The mean R-R interval (Δ%= -16.3%, p<0.01), SDNN (Δ%= -46.4%, p<0.001), rMSSD (Δ%= -57.0%, p<0.001), pNN50 (Δ%= -73.1, p<0.001), and SD1 (Δ%= -57.1, p<0.001) also showed significant differences during REC. Water immersion increases the CG vagal modulation as expected. However, without any influence in EG. The results indicate a decreased vagal modulation in PLHIV in ART, indicating a possible autonomic dysfunction over the heart for this group.
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