The potential of integrated transport modes
Modelling the combined use of bicycles and train in Lisbon, Portugal
Keywords:urban accessibility, bicycles and train, transport modes comparison, GIS
Many capital cities are expanding bicycle lanes or investing in public bike-sharing systems to make cycling mobility a viable transport solution within urban areas. While bicycles are fit for short-distance trips (<15 minutes), their attractiveness declines for longer trips (Ton et al., 2020; Handy et al., 2014; Jäppinen et al., 2013). So, it is opportune to estimate to what extent the accessibility can be increased when intermodal solutions are available. In this paper, a quantitative analysis of different mobility scenarios is conducted. The aim is to evaluate how time travel and accessibility to amenities by bike, can be improved if public transportation such, as the train, is considered. The analysis uses open data and detailed GIS-based network analysis to examine the spatial relationship between transport opportunities, travel time and amenities access in Lisbon, Portugal. Three mobility scenarios are considered: in the first scenario, short-distance trips by bike from home are evaluated (15- minute travel). Then, to evaluate the contribution in time travel of potential modal shift (bike and train) vs individual car, second and third scenarios are presented considering longer distance travels within the city of Lisbon, during peak hours. Results suggest that for longer trips, the combined use of bicycle and train infrastructure can be a faster or more convenient alternative to individual car use. Also, multimodal cycling can expand riders’ area of influence and thus increase the accessibility to opportunities. So, people living near train stations can beneficiate from a “potential” proximity to a diversity of amenities that are geographically more distant. In Lisbon, 34% of the population live within the 10-minute bicycle catchment areas around the 8 train stations from Cintura Line and can thus benefit from this combination of transport modes. City planners can use this methodology to prioritize spaces where investing in accessibility can have the largest impact in terms of improving connections between homes and destinations. This methodology, developed and tested in Lisbon, can be applied in other cities to support planning interventions regarding sustainable transport alternatives.
AML - Área Metropolitana de Lisboa (2019). PAMUS - Plano de Ação de Mobilidade Urbana Sustentável da Área Metropolitana de Lisboa.
Baptista, P., Pina, A., Duarte, G., Rolim, C., Pereira, G., Silva, C., Farias, T. (2015). From on-road trial evaluation of electric and conventional bicycles to comparison with other urban transport modes: Case study in the city of Lisbon, Portugal. Energy Conversion and Management 92, 10–18. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.enconman.2014.12.043
Böhler, S., Brand, R., Brunner, L.M., Juliat, M., Rupprecht, S., Babio Somoza, L., Cré, I. (2021). Topic Guide: Planning for more resilient and robust urban mobility. Brussels.
Broach, J., Dill, J., Gliebe, J., 2012. Where do cyclists ride? A route choice model developed with revealed preference GPS data. Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, 46, 1730–1740. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tra.2012.07.005
Capodici, A.E., D’Orso, G., Migliore, M. (2021). A GIS-Based Methodology for Evaluating the Increase in Multimodal Transport between Bicycle and Rail Transport Systems. A Case Study in Palermo. ISPRS International Journal of Geo-Information, 10, 321. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijgi10050321
Carracedo, D., Mostofi, H., 2022. Electric cargo bikes in urban areas: A new mobility option for private transportation. Transportation Research Interdisciplinary Perspectives, 16, 100705. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.trip.2022.100705
Caselli, B., Carra, M., Rossetti, S., Zazzi, M. (2022). Exploring the 15-minute neighbourhoods. An evaluation based on the walkability performance to public facilities. Transportation Research Procedia, New scenarios for safe mobility in urban areas – Proceedings of the XXV International Conference Living and Walking in Cities (LWC 2021), September 9-10, 2021, Brescia, Italy 60, 346–353. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.trpro.2021.12.045
Christian, H.E., Bull, F.C., Middleton, N.J., Knuiman, M.W., Divitini, M.L., Hooper, P., Amarasinghe, A., Giles-Corti, B. (2011). How important is the land use mix measure in understanding walking behaviour? Results from the RESIDE study. International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity, 8, 55. https://doi.org/10.1186/1479-5868-8-55
CML (2020a). MOVE LISBOA - Strategic Vision for Mobility 2030 [WWW Document]. https://www.lisboa.pt/fileadmin/cidade_temas/mobilidade/documentos/Lisbon_Mobility_Strategic_Vision_MOVE_2030_EN.pdf
CML (2020b). Plano de transformação do espaço público.
Cooper, C.H.V. (2017). Using spatial network analysis to model pedal cycle flows, risk and mode choice. Journal of Transport Geography, 58, 157–165. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jtrangeo.2016.12.003
Cottrill, C.D., Brooke, S., Mulley, C., Nelson, J.D., Wright, S. (2020). Can multi-modal integration provide enhanced public transport service provision to address the needs of vulnerable populations? Research in Transportation Economics, Thredbo 16 conference 83, 100954. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.retrec.2020.100954
de Souza, F., La Paix Puello, L., Brussel, M., Orrico, R., van Maarseveen, M. (2017). Modelling the potential for cycling in access trips to bus, train and metro in Rio de Janeiro. Transportation Research Part D: Transport and Environment, 56, 55–67. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.trd.2017.07.007
Ellerman, D. (2017). Logical information theory: new logical foundations for information theory. Logic Journal of the IGPL, 25, 806–835. https://doi.org/10.1093/jigpal/jzx022
Ellison, R.B., Greaves, S. (2011). Travel Time Competitiveness of Cycling in Sydney, Australia. Transportation Research Record, 2247, 99–108. https://doi.org/10.3141/2247-12
Frank, L.D., Saelens, B.E., Powell, K.E., Chapman, J.E. (2007). Stepping towards causation: Do built environments or neighborhood and travel preferences explain physical activity, driving, and obesity? Social Science & Medicine, Placing Health in Context, 65, 1898–1914. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.socscimed.2007.05.053
García-Palomares, J.C., Gutiérrez, J., Latorre, M. (2012). Optimizing the location of stations in bike-sharing programs: A GIS approach. Applied Geography, 35, 235–246. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apgeog.2012.07.002
Geurs, K.T., van Wee, B. (2004). Accessibility evaluation of land-use and transport strategies: review and research directions. Journal of Transport Geography, 14.
Giles-Corti, B., Foster, S., Shilton, T., Falconer, R., Giles-Corti, B., Foster, S., Shilton, T., Falconer, R. (2010). The co-benefits for health of investing in active transportation. NSW Public Health Bull, 21, 122–127. https://doi.org/10.1071/NB10027
Gössling, S. (2020). Why cities need to take road space from cars - and how this could be done. Journal of Urban Design, 25, 443–448. https://doi.org/10.1080/13574809.2020.1727318
Handy, S., van Wee, B., Kroesen, M. (2014). Promoting Cycling for Transport: Research Needs and Challenges. Transport Reviews, 34, 4–24. https://doi.org/10.1080/01441647.2013.860204
INE (2022). Censos 2021 [WWW Document]. https://censos.ine.pt/xportal/xmain?xpgid=censos21_main&xpid=CENSOS21&xlang=pt
INE (2017). Mobilidade e funcionalidade do território nas Áreas Metropolitanas do Porto e de Lisboa 2017. Lisboa.
Jäppinen, S., Toivonen, T., Salonen, M. (2013). Modelling the potential effect of shared bicycles on public transport travel times in Greater Helsinki: An open data approach. Applied Geography, 43, 13–24. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apgeog.2013.05.010
Kager, R., Bertolini, L., Te Brömmelstroet, M. (2016). Characterisation of and reflections on the synergy of bicycles and public transport. Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, 85, 208–219. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tra.2016.01.015
Karanikola, P., Panagopoulos, T., Tampakis, S., Tsantopoulos, G. (2018). Cycling as a Smart and Green Mode of Transport in Small Touristic Cities. Sustainability, 10, 268. https://doi.org/10.3390/su10010268
Kirschner, F., Lanzendorf, M. (2020). Parking management for promoting sustainable transport in urban neighbourhoods. A review of existing policies and challenges from a German perspective. Transport Reviews, 40, 54–75. https://doi.org/10.1080/01441647.2019.1666929
Kuhnimhof, T., Chlond, B., Huang, P.-C. (2010). Multimodal Travel Choices of Bicyclists: Multiday Data Analysis of Bicycle Use in Germany. Transportation Research Record, 2190, 19–27. https://doi.org/10.3141/2190-03
Lee, Q.Y., Pojani, D. (2019). Making cycling irresistible in tropical climates? Views from Singapore. Policy Design and Practice, 2, 359–369. https://doi.org/10.1080/25741292.2019.1665857
Moreno, C., Allam, Z., Chabaud, D., Gall, C., Pratlong, F. (2021). Introducing the “15-Minute City”: Sustainability, Resilience and Place Identity in Future Post-Pandemic Cities. Smart Cities, 4, 93–111. https://doi.org/10.3390/smartcities4010006
Müggenburg, H., Blitz, A., Lanzendorf, M. (2022). What is a good design for a cycle street? – User perceptions of safety and attractiveness of different street layouts. Case Studies on Transport Policy. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cstp.2022.04.021
Oeschger, G., Carroll, P., Caulfield, B. (2020). Micromobility and public transport integration: The current state of knowledge. Transportation Research Part D: Transport and Environment, 89, 102628. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.trd.2020.102628
Ortegon-Sanchez, A., Oviedo Hernandez, D. (2016). Assessment of the potential for modal shift to non-motorised transport in a developing context: Case of Lima, Peru. Research in Transportation Economics, Transportation and Land Development: A Global View, 60, 3–13. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.retrec.2016.05.010
Raustorp, J., Koglin, T. (2019). The potential for active commuting by bicycle and its possible effects on public health. Journal of Transport & Health, 13, 72–77. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jth.2019.03.012
Rérat, P. (2021). The rise of the e-bike: Towards an extension of the practice of cycling?, Mobilities, 16, 423–439. https://doi.org/10.1080/17450101.2021.1897236
Rode, P., Floater, G., Thomopoulos, N., Docherty, J., Schwinger, P., Mahendra, A., Fang, W. (2017). Accessibility in Cities: Transport and Urban Form. In G. Meyer, S. Shaheen (Eds.), Disrupting Mobility: Impacts of Sharing Economy and Innovative Transportation on Cities, Lecture Notes in Mobility. Springer International Publishing, Cham (pp. 239–273). https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-51602-8_15
Saghapour, T., Moridpour, S., Thompson, R.G. (2017). Measuring cycling accessibility in metropolitan areas. International Journal of Sustainable Transportation, 11, 381–394. https://doi.org/10.1080/15568318.2016.1262927
Selzer, S., Lanzendorf, M., 2022. Car independence in an automobile society? The everyday mobility practices of residents in a car-reduced housing development. Travel Behaviour and Society, 28, 90–105. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tbs.2022.02.008
Shelat, S., Huisman, R., van Oort, N. (2018). Analysing the trip and user characteristics of the combined bicycle and transit mode. Research in Transportation Economics, 69, 68–76. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.retrec.2018.07.017
Silva, C., Castro, N., Bicalho, T., Cadima, C. (2020). Using Accessibility Measures to reveal Public Transport Competitiveness compared to the car.
Silva, C., Teixeira, J., Proença, A. (2019). Revealing the Cycling Potential of Starter Cycling Cities. Transportation Research Procedia, 41, 637–654. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.trpro.2019.09.113
Ton, D., Shelat, S., Nijënstein, S., Rijsman, L., van Oort, N., Hoogendoorn, S. (2020). Understanding the Role of Cycling to Urban Transit Stations through a Simultaneous Access Mode and Station Choice Model. Transportation Research Record, 2674, 823–835. https://doi.org/10.1177/0361198120925076
Tønnesen, A., Knapskog, M., Uteng, T.P., Øksenholt, K.V. (2021). The integration of active travel and public transport in Norwegian policy packages: A study on ‘access, egress and transfer’ and their positioning in two multilevel contractual agreements. Research in Transportation Business & Management, 40, 100546. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rtbm.2020.100546
van Mil, J.F.P., Leferink, T.S., Annema, J.A., van Oort, N. (2021). Insights into factors affecting the combined bicycle-transit mode. Public Transp, 13, 649–673. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12469-020-00240-2
Walsh, C., Jakeman, P., Moles, R., O’Regan, B. (2008). A comparison of carbon dioxide emissions associated with motorised transport modes and cycling in Ireland. Transportation Research Part D: Transport and Environment, 13, 392–399. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.trd.2008.07.002
Wang, R. (2011). Autos, transit and bicycles: Comparing the costs in large Chinese cities. Transport Policy, 18, 139–146. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tranpol.2010.07.003
Zuo, T., Wei, H., Chen, N., Zhang, C. (2020). First-and-last mile solution via bicycling to improving transit accessibility and advancing transportation equity. Cities, 99, 102614. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cities.2020.102614
Copyright (c) 2022 Teresa Santos, Ricardo Nogueira Mendes, Rui Pedro Julião
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.Cidades, Comunidades e Territórios by DINÂMIA'CET-IUL is licensed under a Creative Commons Atribuição-Uso Não-Comercial-Proibição de realização de Obras Derivadas 4.0 Unported License.
Permissions beyond the scope of this license may be available at mailto:firstname.lastname@example.org.