Sensitization profile in a hospital on the north coast of Portugal
Introduction: Skin prick tests are important in the evaluation of allergic sensitization. Besides allowing identifying the allergens involved, they are important for the implementation of environmental eviction measures and therapeutic strategies.
Objectives: To identify the sensitization profile to aeroallergens in children with asthma and/or allergic rhinitis followed in an hospital in the north coast of Portugal.
Material and Methods: A retrospective study was conducted with a review of the clinical processes of patients with asthma and/or allergic rhinitis, who performed skin prick tests from august 2012 to april 2016. The variables analyzed were: age, gender, allergic disease (asthma and/or allergic rhinitis), comorbidities and the results of the skin tests performed. The data obtained were organized using the program SPSS 20.0, for Windows. A descriptive analysis of the different variables was performed.
Results: Three hundred and twelve patients were included, aged five to 18 years, 63,5% males and 36,5% females. The diagnosis established were: allergic rhinitis in 47%, asthma in 19% and the combination of asthma and allergic rhinitis in 34% of the cases. Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus (87,5%), Lepidoglyphus destructor (70,5%) and Dermatophagoides farinae (69,9%) were the most frequent allergens, followed by wild gramineae (47,4%) and cultivated gramineae (41,3%).
Conclusions: In this study the main allergens determined by the skin tests were the mites, with high incidence of Lepidoglyphus destructor. Since immunotherapy with allergens is the only therapy directed to the cause of the allergic disease and with the potential to modify the evolution, an adequate selection of its components is essential to optimize the results. As the sensitization profile of each region depends on several variables this information allows a better diagnostic and therapeutic approach.
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