An unusual finding on the anterior fontanelle exam
Introduction: Palpation of the anterior fontanelle allows to investigate intracranial pressure and volume. Swelling of anterior fontanelle in a quiet baby examined in a supine position indicates high intracranial pressure, which may have distinctive causes, namely neoplasms.
Case report: A female infant, two months old, attended an emergency consultation at the Family Health Unit due to swelling in the anterior fontanelle. A soft nodular swelling with approximately one centimeter in diameter was observed at the fontanelle. Transfontanellar ultrasound revealed a potential epidermal cyst. The infant was referred to the Pediatric Surgery Department. Ultrasound was repeated two months later and revealed lesion growth. The infant was referred to the Neurosurgery Department, and a brain magnetic resonance imaging was performed. Absence of communication with endocranial structures was confirmed. Surveillance was maintained until fontanelle closure, aiming at later excision. Histological examination confirmed the diagnosis of dermoid cyst.
Discussion: Regular clinical follow-up supported by imaging studies revealed the benign nature of the lesion, allowing to postpone surgery.
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