Sexually transmitted diseases and risk factors in adolescent and young girls: data from a youth attendance center
Keywords:adolescents, youth, risk factors, sexually transmitted diseases
Introduction: Sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) have a high prevalence during adolescents and young adults, being associated with significant morbidity.
Aim: To determine the prevalence of STDs in a group of young girls and to evaluate which factors are associated with higher risk of STDs.
Material and Methods: Cross-sectional study including 100 young girls under 27 years, divided in two subgroups: asymptomatic and with gynecologic symptoms. We collected demographic and clinical variables, vaginal and cervical swabs for Trichomonas vaginalis, Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae and collected blood samples for Hepatitis B and C, Human Immunodeficiency Virus, Syphilis and Herpes simplex type 2virus serologic tests. Significant associations between variables (p<0.05) were identified by chi-square test.
Results: We found evidence of at least one STD in 16% of the sample. The results were: Trichomonas 1%, Chlamydia 7%, Neisseria 1%, Syphilis 1% and Herpes simplex type 2 12%. More than 5 sexual partners and cervical ectopy were associated with increased risk of laboratorial evidence of at least one STD (p=0.009 and p=0.006 respectively).
Conclusions: Prevalence of STDs justifies the continued investment in young girls education towards the delay of onset of sexual intercourse and the consistent use of condom. Physicians taking care of adolescents must be aware of the importance of STD screening and treatmen,t so its late complications might be avoided.
Fonseca H. Compreender os Adolescentes, Um Desafio para Pais e Educadores. Lisboa: Editorial Presença; 2012. P. 17-22.
Sexually transmitted diseases: Overview of issues specific to adolescents. www.uptodate.com (3 Mar 2014, last update).
Hiltabiddle SJ. Adolescent Condom Use, the Health Belief model, and the Prevention of Sexually Transmitted Disease. Journal of Obstetric, Gynecologic, & Neonatal Nursing. 1996; 25(1): 61-6.
Adolescent sexuality. www.uptodate.com (26 Jun 2013, last update).
Yarber WL, Parrillo AV. Adolescents and Sexually Transmitted Diseases. Journal of School Health. 1992; 62(7): 331-8.
Diclemente RJ, Wingood GM, Sionéan C, Crosby R, Harrington K, Davies S, Hook EW, Oh MK. Association of Adolescents’ History of Sexually Transmitted Disease (STD) and Their Current High-Risk Behavior and STD Status, A Case for Intensifying Clinic-Based Prevention Efforts. Sexually Transmitted Diseases. 2002; 29(9):503-9.
Shrier LA, Goodman E, Emans SJ. Partner Condom Use Among Adolescent Girls with Sexually Transmitted Diseases. Journal of Adolescent Health. 1999; 24: 357-61.
Srivastava P, Jha R, Bas S, Salhan S, Mittal A. In infertile women, cells from Chlamydia trachomatis infected site release higher levels of interferon-gamma, interleukin-10 and tumor necrosis factor-alpha upon heat shock protein stimulation than fertile women. Reproductive Biology and Endocrinology. 2008; 6:20.
Stephens AJ, Aubuchon M, Schust DJ. Antichlamydial Antibodies, Human Fertility, and Pregnancy Wastage. Infectious Diseases in Obstetrics and Gynecology. 2011; ID525182.
Paavonen J, Eggert-Kruse W. Chlamydia trachomatis: impact on human reproduction. Human Reproduction Update. 1999; 5:433-47.
Haggerty CL, Gottlieb SL, Taylor BD, Low N, Xu F, Ness RB. Risk of Sequelae after Chlamydia trachomatis Genital Infection in Women. The Journal of Infectious Diseases. 2010; 201(S2): S134-55.
Kamwendo F, Forslin L, Bodin L, Danielsson D. Decreasing Incidences of Gonorrhea- and Chlamydia-Associated Acute Pelvic Inflammatory Disease, A 25-Year Study From an Urban Area of Central Sweden. Sexually Transmitted Diseases. 1996; 23(5):384-91.
Sonnenberg P, Clifton S, Beddows S, Field N, Soldan K, Tanton C, et al. Prevalence, risk factors, and uptake of interventions for sexually transmitted infections in Britain: findings from the National Surveys of Sexual Attitudes and Lifestyles (Natsal). The Lancet. 2013; 382:1795-806.
Lammers C, Ireland M, ResnicK M, Blum R. Influences on Adolescents’ Decision to Postpone Onset of Sexual Intercourse: a Survival Analysis of Virginity Among Youths Aged 13 to 18 Years. Journal of Adolescent Health. 2000; 26:42-8.
Aventura Social & Saúde, A Saúde dos Adolescentes Portugueses, Relatório do estudo HBSC 2010. 2010.
Mansouri R, Santos XM. Doenças sexualmente transmissíveis em adolescentes. Patient care – edição portuguesa. 2014. 19(199): 23-31.
Neves F, Marques F, Carnide C. Infeções Sexualmente transmissíveis. Actualizações em Saúde Reprodutiva e Sexualidade na Adolescência. 2014; 79-88.
How to Cite
Copyright and access
This journal offers immediate free access to its content, following the principle that providing free scientific knowledge to the public provides greater global democratization of knowledge.
The works are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution Non-commercial 4.0 International license.
Nascer e Crescer – Birth and Growth Medical Journal do not charge any submission or processing fee to the articles submitted.