Adaptation strain index for tourists traveling from central and northern Europe to the Mediterranean

  • Krzysztof Błażejczyk Institute of Geography and Spatial Organization
  • Vera Vinogradova Institute of Geography, Russian Academy of Sciences


One of the principal features of climate is its spatial variability. Longdistance travels are an essential part of life in contemporary societies. In 2012 tourismarrivalsreached 1 billion people at the global scale. In a short time one can move toextremelydifferent climatic conditions and one’s organism is under great pressure ofatmosphericstimuli which can be very different from those experienced at home. Spatialdifferences in climate stimuli need various adaptation strategies in humans. The paperconsiders adaptationstrain in tourists from seven central and northern European citiestravelling to the Mediterranean regions of Barcelona, Rome and Athens for the period1991-2000. The AdaptationStrain Index (ASI) was applied for this purpose. Seasonal andspatial patterns of bioclimatic contrasts are considered. Summer was the season withgreatest spatially differentiatedadaptation strain, but in winter the need for adaptationwas the highest.