Industry 4.0: a challenge of competition


  • Joaquim Gonçalves Antunes Instituto Politécnico de Viseu, Escola Superior de Tecnologia e Gestão de Viseu, Centro de Estudos em Educação, Tecnologias e Saúde.
  • António Pinto Instituto Politécnico de Viseu, Escola Superior de Tecnologia e Gestão de Viseu, Centro de Estudos em Educação, Tecnologias e Saúde.
  • Pedro Reis Instituto Politécnico de Viseu, Escola Superior de Tecnologia e Gestão de Viseu, Centro de Estudos em Educação, Tecnologias e Saúde.
  • Carla Henriques Instituto Politécnico de Viseu, Escola Superior de Tecnologia e Gestão de Viseu, Centro de Estudos em Educação, Tecnologias e Saúde, Centro de Matemática da Universidade de Coimbra.



Industry 4.0, IoT, Factors of attractiveness, Dão-Lafões – Portugal


Introduction: The value creation in industry in developed countries is being driven by the fourth stage of industrialization, denominated by Industry 4.0. The new industrial revolution will be motivated by next-generation information technologies such as Internet of Things (IoT), cloud computing, Big Data and data analysis, robotics, mobile computing, simulation and modelling, cyber-physical systems, among others. This opens new horizons for industry, but the challenges are countless creating difficulties for companies in the adoption of these technologies.

Objectives: To make a powerful and deep literature revision pursuing a technical analysis of the Industry 4.0 requirements. Further.

Methods: We will address the main risks and challenges associated with IoT and define the regional attractiveness measures as growth drivers that leaders must put in place to appeal for companies chasing 4.0.

Results: IoT joins the digital world and the physical world being considered the next generation network or the future Internet. It allows to give life and communication capacity either to living beiings or to inanimate objects.
IoT's intervention in Industry 4.0 im extreme, with a continuous interconnection of the digital and physical domain.

Conclusions: Portugal's growth prospects will increasingly depend on policies that enable the economy to compete successfully and create new income opportunities. At the moment, there are structural bottlenecks that continue to curb growth and exacerbate vulnerabilities. Solving some of these problems will now lay the foundation for solid growth in the coming years, but this calls for a renewal of the impetus for structural reforms. Industry 4.0, can contribute significantly to reducing regional asymmetries. But in the longer term, skills will need to be improved to foster development and reduce the high levels of such inequalities.


Download data is not yet available.


Almada-Lobo, F. (2016). The Industry 4.0 revolution and the future of manufacturing execution systems (MES). Journal of Innovation Management, 3, 16-21.

Azzoni, C. R. (1981). Incentivos municipais e localização no Estado de São Paulo. São Paulo: FIPE/USP.

Balasingham, K. (2016). Industry 4.0: Securing the Future for German Manufacturing Companies (Master's thesis, University of Twente).

Barquette, S. (2002). Fatores de localização de incubadoras e empreendimentos de alta tecnologia. Revista de Administração de Empresas,42(3), 1-13.

Bramanti A., Lazzeri G. (2016), “Smart Specialisation and Policy-Mix: Economic and Political Challenges Within the Italian Experience”. RSA Annual Conference, Building Bridges: Cities and Regions in a Transnational World, 4-6 April, Graz.

Castillejo, P., J.-F. Martínez, L. López, and G. Rubio. 2013. “An Internet of Things Approach for Managing Smart Services Provided by Wearable Devices.” International Journal of Distributed Sensor Networks 2013: 1–9. doi:10.1155/2013/ 190813.

Comunidade Europeia (2013), Relatório da Comissão ao Parlamento Europeu, ao Conselho, ao comité Económico e social e ao Comité das Regiões

Comissão Europeia, (2017),

Dominici, G., Roblek, V., Abbate, T., Tani, M. (2016). “Click and drive”: Consumer attitude to product development. Towards future transformations of driving experience. Business Process Management Journal, 22, 420-434. doi:10.1108/BPMJ-05- 2015-0076

Dorfman, N. S. (1983). Route 128: the development of a regional high technology economy. Research Policy, 12, p. 299-316.

Erol, S., Jäger, A., Hold, P., Ott, K., Sihn, W. (2016). Tangible Industry 4 . 0 : a scenario-based approach to learning for the future of production. Procedia CIRP, 54, 13–18.

European Commission (2015a). Program smart cities. Retrieved from

European Commission (2015b). The Factories of the Future.

European Commission (2016). Digitalização da Indústria Europeia - Usufruir de todos os benefícios do Mercado Único Digital. Retrieved from

European Commission (2017). Digital single market. Retrieved from

Eurostat (2014). Cloud computing. Retrieved from

Freeman, C. (1995). The ‘National System of Innovation’in historical perspective.Cambridge Journal of economics, 19(1), 5-24.

Ganschar, O., Gerlach, S., Hämmerle, M., Krause, T., Schlund, S. (2013).Produktionsarbeit der Zukunft-Industrie 4.0 (pp. 50-56). D. Spath (Ed.). Stuttgart: Fraunhofer Verlag.

Guedes, M., Hermes, M. H. (1997). Rio, uma cidade inteligente: parque tecnológico da Ilha do Fundão. In: Paladino, G., Medeiros, L. A. (Orgs.) Parques tecnológicos e meio urbano: artigos e debates. Curitiba.

Huxtable, J., Schaefer, D. (2016). On Servitization of the Manufacturing Industry in the UK. Procedia CIRP, 52, 46-51.

IDA - Intelligent Data Analysis (2012), The Eleventh International Symposium on Intelligent Data Analysis.

Kane, G. C., Palmer, D., Phillips, A. N., Kiron, D. (2015). Is your business ready for a digital future? MIT Sloan Management Review, 56, 37.

Kletti, J.: Zukunftskonzept (2015). MES 4.0 Dezentrale Regelkreise synchronisieren. In: IT & Production, (4)

Lindqvist, Ulf e Neumann, Peter G. (2017). Insider risks. The Future of the Internet of Things, Communications of the ACM, 60 (2), 26-30.

Magesh, Kumar K; Vetripriya M, Brigetta A; Akila A, Keerthana D (2016). Analysis on Internet of Things and Its Application, International Journal of Scientific Research in Science, Engineering and Technology, 2(2), 1040-1047.

Magruk, A. (2016). Uncertainty in the Sphere of the Industry 4.0–Potential Areas to Research. Business, Management and Education, 14(2), 275-291.

Mosconi, F. (2015). The new European industrial policy: Global competitiveness and the manufacturing renaissance. London, England: Routledge.

Ning, H., Liu, H. (2015). Cyber-physical-social-thinking space based science and technology framework for the Internet of things. Science China Information Sciences, 58, 1-19. doi:10.1007/s11432-014-5209-2

OCDE (2017). Relatórios Económicos da OCDE. Fevereiro de 2017.

Oesterreich, T. D., Teuteberg, F. (2016). Understanding the implications of digitisation and automation in the context of Industry 4 . 0 : A triangulation approach and elements of a research agenda for the construction industry. Computers in Industry, 83, 121–139.

Palattella, Maria Rita; Dohler, Mischa; Grieco, Alfredo; Rizzo, Gianluca; Torsner, Johan; Engel,Thomas e Ladid, Latif (2016). Internet of Things in the 5G Era: Enablers, Architecture and Business Models, IEEE Journal on Selected Areas in Communications, 34(3), 1-17.

Ratti, R., Bramanti, A., Gordon, R. (Eds.). (1997). The dynamics of innovative regions: the GREMI approach. Aldershot: Ashgate.

Roblek, V., Meško, M., Krapež, A. (2016). A Complex View of Industry 4.0.SAGE Open, 6(2),

Rolik, Y. А. (2013). A complex approach to evaluating the innovation strategy of a company to determine its investment attractiveness. Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences, 99, 562-571.

Rüßmann, M., Lozenz, M., Gerbert, P., Waldner, M., Justus, J., Engel, P., Harnisch, M. (2015). Industry 4.0: The Future of Productivity and Growth in Manufacturing Industries. The Boston Counsulting Group

Schmenner, R. W (1982). Making business location decisions. Englewood Cliffs : Prentice-Hall.

Ushakov, D. S. (2012). Innovative Capacity as a Modern Factor of Countries Investment Attractiveness Dynamic. International Journal of Organizational Innovation (Online), 4(4), 6.

Weber, E. (2015). Industrie 4.0—Wirkungen auf Wirtschaft und Arbeitsmarkt (Industry 4.0 Impact on the economy and labor market). Wirtschaftsdienst, 95, 722-723.

Xiaopu, Shang; Runtong, Zhang; Xiaomin, Zhu e Quan, Zhou (2016) Design theory, modelling and the application for the Internet of Things service, Enterprise Information Systems, 10:3, 249-267, DOI: 10.1080/17517575.2015.1075592

Yan, L., Y., Zhang, T. Yang, H. Ning. 2008. The Internet of Things: From RFID to the Next-Generation Pervasive Networked Systems. New York: Auerbach Publications.




How to Cite

Antunes, J. G., Pinto, A., Reis, P., & Henriques, C. (2018). Industry 4.0: a challenge of competition. Millenium - Journal of Education, Technologies, and Health, 2(6), 89–97.



Engineering, Technology, Management and Tourism