Interculturality and entrepreneurship education: a virtuous cycle?

  • Ana Dias Daniel Universidade de Aveiro, Aveiro, Portugal
  • Mariana Pita Universidade de Aveiro, Aveiro, Portugal
Keywords: intercultural competences, entrepreneurial skills, entrepreneurship education, employability, internationalisation

Abstract

Introduction: Multinational companies are now looking for graduates with a wide range of skills that include awareness of other cultures and mastery of more than one language (Jones, 2013). According to Alred, Byram, and Fleming (2003) education should promote “a sense of interculturality, an intercultural competence” (p.6) through a process that is dynamic, interactive, and that transforms attitudes, skills and knowledge, allowing effective and appropriate communication and interaction across cultures (Freeman et al., 2009).

Objectives: A case study analysis was conducted with the objective of understanding the relevance of active learning methodology within an entrepreneurship education course in the development of students’ intercultural competences.

Methods: Given the exploratory nature of the study, we opted for the implementation of a qualitative study, based on semi-structured interviews to students enrolled in the Learning To Be program, in order to gather students' perspectives regarding participation in the program. A questionnaire was also implemented in order to understand which competences students considered to have been developed within the scope of that participation.

Results: The results showed that i) students evaluate the experimental learning methodology positively; ii) student’s intercultural competences have increased; iii) openness to work in multicultural context is higher.

Conclusions: The analysis of data suggests that students recognised the relevance of intercultural competences for their future professional career and have highlighted the appropriateness of the methodology used in the entrepreneurship education program for their development. Likewise, the students emphasized the impact of the program on intercultural and entrepreneurial communication skills that could contribute to increasing their employability.

References

Acquah, E. O., & Commins, N. L. (2018). International students’ perspectives of a diverse class on multiculturalism. Journal of Further and Higher Education, 42(2), 193–204. http://doi.org/10.1080/0309877X.2016.1224328

Ahn, M. J., & Ettner, L. (2013). Cultural intelligence (CQ) in MBA curricula. Multicultural Education & Technology Journal, 7(1), 4–16. http://doi.org/10.1108/17504971311312591

Allen, E. (1995). Active learning and teaching: improving postsecondary library instruction. Reference Librarian, 51, 89–103.

Alred, G., Byram, M., & Fleming, M. (2003). Introduction. In M. F. Geof Alred, Michael Byram (Ed.), Intercultural Experience and Education. Clevedon: Multilingual Matters.

Arasaratnam, L. A. (2015). Research in Intercultural Communication: Reviewing the Past Decade. Journal of International and Intercultural Communication, 8(4), 290–310. http://doi.org/10.1080/17513057.2015.1087096

Bakhshi, H., Downing, J. M., Osborne, M. A., & Scheiner, P. (2017). The Future of Skills: Employment in 2030. London: Pearson and Nesta.

Bonwell, C., & Eison, J. . (1991). Active learning: creating excitement in the classroom. Washington, DC: The George Washington University.

Busch, D. (2009). What kind of intercultural competence will contribute to students’ future job employability? Intercultural Education, 20(5), 429–438.

Cole, D., & Tibby, M. (2013). HEA Employability Framework - Defining and developing your approach to employability. York.

Council, B. (2013). Culture at work: The value of intercultural skills in the workplace. London: British Council.

Daniel, A. D. (2016). Fostering an entrepreneurial mind-set by using a Design Thinking approach in Entrepreneurship Education.

Journal of Industry & Higher Education, 30(3), 215–223. http://doi.org/10.1177/095042221665319

Daniel, A. D., & Castro, V. R. (2017). Entrepreneurship Education: how to measure the impact on nascent entrepreneurs? In A. C. Moreira, J. G. Dantas, & F. M. Valente (Eds.), Nascent Entrepreneurship and Successful New Venture Creation (pp. 85–110). Hershey, PA: IGI Global. http://doi.org/10.4018/978-1-5225-2936-1.ch004

Daniel, A. D., Costa, R. A., Pita, M., & Costa, C. (2017). Tourism Education: What about entrepreneurial skills? Journal of Hospitality and Tourism Management, 30, 65–72. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.jhtm.2017.01.002

Daniel, A. D., Vitória, A., & Pita, M. (2018). The role of University-Business Collaboration in Entrepreneurship Education Programs. In J. J. Ferreira, A. Fayolle, V. Ratten, & M. Raposo (Eds.), Entrepreneurial Universities: Collaboration, Education and Policies (pp. 14–40). Edward Elgar Publishing.

Deardorff, D. K. &, & Arasaraatnam-Smith, L. (2017). Intercultural Competence in Higher Education: International Approaches, Assessment and Application. (D. K. & Deardorff & L. Arasaraatnam-Smith, Eds.) (Internatio). New York: Routledge.

Draycott, M., & Rae, D. (2011). Enterprise education in schools and the role of competency frameworks. International Journal of Entrepreneurial Behavior & Research, 17(2), 127–145. http://doi.org/10.1108/13552551111114905

Entrepreneurship at a Glance 2017. (2017). http://doi.org/10.1787/entrepreneur_aag-2017-en

Eurodesk. (2015). How can learning mobility of young people increase their employability? Brussels: European Commission.

European Commission. (2013). Entrepreneurship 2020 Action Plan: Reigniting the entrepreneurial spirit in Europe. COM (2012) 795 Final, (Brussels, 9 January 2013), 1–33. Retrieved from http://eur-lex.europa.eu/legalcontent/EN/TXT/PDF/?uri=CELEX:52012DC0795&from=EN

Fayolle, A. (2013). Personal views on the future of entrepreneurship education. Entrepreneurship & Regional Development, 25(7–8), 692–701. http://doi.org/10.1080/08985626.2013.821318

Fitzsimons, C., Finn, J., & Grummell, B. (2017). Creating intercultural learning environments Guidelines for staff within Higher Education Institution. Barcelona: HE4u2 consortium.

Forum, W. E. (2016). The Future of Jobs. http://doi.org/10.1177/1946756712473437

Freeman, M., Treleaven, L., Ramburuth, P., Leask, B., Caulfield, N., Simpson, L., … Sykes, C. (2009). Embedding the Development of Intercultural Competence in Business Education. Sydney. Retrieved from https://ltr.edu.au/resources/CG6-37_Sydney_Freeman_Final%20Report_July09.pdf

Fromhold-Eisebith, M., & Werker, C. (2013). Universities’ functions in knowledge transfer: A geographical perspective. Annals of Regional Science, 51(3), 621–643. http://doi.org/10.1007/s00168-013-0559-z

Gibb, A. (1987). Designing effective programmes for encouraging the business start-up process: lessons from the UK experience. Journal of European Industrial Training, 11(4), 24–32.

Gibb, A. (2002). In pursuit of a new “enterprise” and “entrepreneurship” paradigm for learning: creative destruction, new values, new ways of doing things and new combinations of knowledge. International Journal of Management Reviews, 4(3), 233–269. http://doi.org/10.1111/1468-2370.00086

John Molony, Ben Sowter, & Davina Potts. (2011). QS Global Employer Survey Report 2011. London: QS Quacquarelli Symonds Ltd

Johnson, R. B., & Buko, S. (2014). Cultural Intelligence Scale (CQS): Testing Cross-cultural Transferability of CQS in Ukraine. Studies of Changing Societies, 2013(4). http://doi.org/10.2478/scs-2014-0160

Jones, E. (2013). Internationalization and employability: The role of intercultural experiences in the development of transferable skills. Public Money and Management, 33(2), 95–104. http://doi.org/10.1080/09540962.2013.763416

Klak, T., & Martin, P. (2003). Do university-sponsored international cultural events help students to appreciate “difference”? International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 27(4), 445–465. http://doi.org/10.1016/S0147-1767(03)00033-6

Kyrö, P. (2005). Entrepreneurial learning in a cross-cultural context challenges previous learning paradigms. In P. & C. Kyrö C. (eds.) (Ed.), The dynamics of learning entrepreneurship in a cross-cultural university context. University of Tampere, Research Centre for Vocational and Professional Education.

Moberg, K. (2014). Two approaches to entrepreneurship education: The different effects of education for and through entrepreneurship at the lower secondary level. International Journal of Management Education, 12(3), 512–528. Retrieved from https://www.scopus.com/inward/record.uri?eid=2-s2.0-

&partnerID=40&md5=f4f5a074d96ceb5bbc7afd996b23e692

Moberg, K. (2014). Two approaches to entrepreneurship education: The different effects of education for and through entrepreneurship at the lower secondary level. The International Journal of Management Education, 12(3), 512–528. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijme.2014.05.002

Morey, A. I. (2000). Changing Higher Education Curricula for a Global and Multicultural World. Higher Education in Europe, 25(1), 25–39. http://doi.org/10.1080/03797720050002170

Mwasalwiba, E. S. (2010). Entrepreneurship education: a review of its objectives, teaching methods, and impact indicators. Education and Training, 52(1), 20–47. http://doi.org/http://dx.doi.org/10.1108/00400911011017663

O’Mahony, T. K., Vye, N. J., Bransford, J. D., Sanders, E. A., Stevens, R., Stephens, R. D., … Soleiman, M. K. (2012). A Comparison of Lecture-Based and Challenge-Based Learning in a Workplace Setting: Course Designs, Patterns of Interactivity, and Learning Outcomes. Journal of the Learning Sciences, 21(1), 182–206. http://doi.org/10.1080/10508406.2011.611775

OECD. (2018). The Future of Education and Skills: Education 2030. Paris: Directorate for Education and Skills-OECD.

Özturgut, O. (2011). Understanding multicultural education. Current Issues in Education, 14(2), 1–11.

Pittaway, L., & Edwards, C. (2012). Assessment: examining practice in entrepreneurship education. Education + Training, 54(8/9), 778–800. Retrieved from http://www.emeraldinsight.com/journals.htm?issn=0040-

&volume=54&issue=8/9&articleid=17065250&show=html

Ramirez R., E. (2016). Impact on Intercultural Competence When Studying Abroad and the Moderating Role of Personality. Journal of Teaching in International Business, 27(2–3), 88–105. http://doi.org/10.1080/08975930.2016.1208784

Silberman, M. (1996). Active learning: 101 strategies to teach any subject. (A. and Bacon, Ed.). Massachusetts.

Testa, S., & Frascheri, S. (2015). Learning by failing: What we can learn from un-successful entrepreneurship education. International Journal of Management Education, 13(1), 11–22. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijme.2014.11.001

Timmons, J. A., & Stevenson, H. (1985). Entrepreneurship education in the 1980s – what entrepreneurs say. In J. Kao & H. H. Stevenson (Eds.), Entrepreneurship – What it is and How to Teach it (pp. 115–134). Cambridge, MA: Harvard Business School.

Wang, Y., & Kulich, S. J. (2015). Does context count? Developing and assessing intercultural competence through an interviewand model-based domestic course design in China. International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 48, 38–57. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijintrel.2015.03.013

Wolff, F., & Borzikowsky, C. (2018). Intercultural Competence by International Experiences? An Investigation of the Impact of Educational Stays Abroad on Intercultural Competence and Its Facets. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 49(3), 488– 514. http://doi.org/10.1177/0022022118754721

World Economic Forum. (2018). The Future of Jobs Repot 2018. World Economic Forum.

http://doi.org/10.1177/1946756712473437

Yoshitake, M. (2002). Anxiety/Uncertainty Management (AUM) Theory: A Critical Examination of an Intercultural

Communication Theory. Intercultural Communication Studies XI, 2.

Published
2019-06-07
Section
Education and Social Development Sciences