Retention in school
could student’s affective engagement play an essential role in its prevention?
Keywords:student’s affective engagement, retention in school, academic achievement
Introduction: In Portugal, the retention in school presents worrying figures. The indicator "Direct Paths to Success", created by the Ministry of Education, shows that the majority of students who did not finish secondary school in 2019 was because they failed a year or had a negative score in at least one of the national exams. Out of a universe of 456,368 students, only 201,937 (44%) had the so-called "direct success path". (Source: http://infoescolas.mec.pt/ 02/2019)
Objetives: The main goal of this study is to inquire if the students who had been held back were the ones who showed at the beginning of the school year less emotional commitment in comparison with students that moved forward.
Methods: The sample comprises 330 students from the 10th grade of a secondary school in Lisbon, and the data were collected using a scale proposed by Veiga (2013, 2014, 2016) – Student’s Engagement in School (EAE-E4D), at the end of the first school term.
Results: Considerable differences emerged between the two groups in all the items of the affective dimension. The group retained had the worst results.
Conclusion: The students’ affective engagement is crucial for academic success, and school should promote it through strategies that can provide their well-being and prevent retention.
Almeida, A. T., Carvalho, C., Janeiro, I., Nogueira, J., Melo, M., Festas, M. I., Baía, S., & Caldeira, S. (2009). Envolvimento dos alunos em escolas portuguesas: Elementos de um projecto de avaliação. Actas do X Congresso Internacional Galego-Português de Psicopedagogia, 4272–4281.
Anderson, A. R., & Havsy, L. (2001). Check & connect: An examination of the middle school transition. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the National Association of School Psychologists, Washington, DC.
Appleton, J. J., Christenson, S. L., & Furlong, M. J. (2008). Student engagement with school: Critical conceptual and methodological issues of the construct. Psychology in the Schools, 45(5), 369–386. https://doi.org/10.1002/pits.20303
Birch, S. H., & Ladd, G. W. (1997). The teacher-child relationship and children’s early school adjustment. Journal of School Psychology, 35(1), 61–79. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0022-4405(96)00029-5
Borman, G. D., & Overman, L. T. (2004). Academic Resilience in Mathematics among Poor and Minority Students. The Elementary School Journal, 104(3), 177–195.
Borowsky, I. W., Ireland, M., & Resnick, M. D. (2002). Violence risk and protective factors among youth held back in school. Ambulatory Pediatrics: The Official Journal of the Ambulatory Pediatric Association, 2(6), 475–484. https://doi.org/10.1367/1539-4409(2002)002<0475:vrapfa>2.0.co;2
Brophy, J. (2006). History of Research on Classroom Management. Em C. M. Evertson & C. S. Weinstein (Eds.), Handbook of Classroom Management: Research, Practice, and Contemporary Issues (pp. 17–43). Routledge. https://doi.org/10.4324/9780203874783.ch2
Carbonaro, W. (2005). Tracking, Students’ Effort, and Academic Achievement. Sociology of Education, 78(1), 27–49. https://doi.org/10.1177/003804070507800102
Connell, J. P., Spencer, M. B., & Aber, J. L. (1994). Educational Risk and Resilience in African-American Youth: Context, Self, Action, and Outcomes in School. Child Development, 65(2), 493–506. https://doi.org/10.2307/1131398
Despacho Normativo n.º 98-A/92 de 20 Junho. Diário da República n.º 140/1992 – I Série B 1º
DiPerna, J. C., Volpe, R. J., & Elliott, S. N. (2005). A model of academic enablers and mathematics achievement in the elementary grades. Journal of School Psychology, 43(5), 379–392. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jsp.2005.09.002
Duarte, M. I., Roldão, C., Nóvoas, D., Fernandes, S., & Duarte, T. (Eds.). (2008). Estudantes à Entrada do Secundário.GEPE. https://www.dgeec.mec.pt/np4/47/%7B$clientServletPath%7D/?newsId=48&fileName=Estudantes___Entrada_do_Secund_rio1.pdf
Elias, M. J., Gara, M., & Ubriaco, M. (1985). Sources of Stress and Support in Children’s Transition to Middle School: An Empirical Analysis. Journal of Clinical Child Psychology, 14(2), 112–118. https://doi.org/10.1207/s15374424jccp1402_3
Ferreira, A., Félix, P., & Perdigão, R. (Eds.). (2015). Retenção Escolar nos Ensinos Básico e Secundário o [Relatório Técnico]. CNE. https://doi.org/10.13140/RG.2.2.25955.20008
Fine, M. (1991). Framing dropouts: Notes on the politics of an urban public high school (pp. xiii, 299). State University of New York Press.
Fredricks, J. A., Blumenfeld, P. C., & Paris, A. H. (2004). School Engagement: Potential of the Concept, State of the Evidence. Review of Educational Research, 74(1), 59–109. https://doi.org/10.3102/00346543074001059
Furrer, C., & Skinner, E. (2003). Sense of relatedness as a factor in children’s academic engagement and performance. Journal of Educational Psychology, 95(1), 148–162. https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-06184.108.40.206
Grácio, S. (1997). Dinâmicas da Escolarização e das Oportunidades Individuais. EDUCA. https://www.wook.pt/livro/dinamicas-da-escolarizacao-e-das-oportunidades-individuais-sergio-gracio/203581
Henry, K. L., Knight, K. E., & Thornberry, T. P. (2012). School disengagement as a predictor of dropout, delinquency, and problem substance use during adolescence and early adulthood. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 41(2), 156–166. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10964-011-9665-3
Hirschfield, P. J., & Gasper, J. (2011). The relationship between school engagement and delinquency in late childhood and early adolescence. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 40(1), 3–22. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10964-010-9579-5
Jordan, W. J. (1999). Black High School Students’ Participation in School-Sponsored Sports Activities: Effects on School Engagement and Achievement. The Journal of Negro Education, 68(1), 54–71. https://doi.org/10.2307/2668209
Juvonen, J., Espinoza, G., & Knifsend, C. (2012). The Role of Peer Relationships in Student Academic and Extracurricular Engagement. Em S. L. Christenson, A. L. Reschly, & C. Wylie (Eds.), Handbook of Research on Student Engagement (pp. 387–401). Springer US. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4614-2018-7_18
Klem, A. M., & Connell, J. P. (2004). Relationships Matter: Linking Teacher Support to Student Engagement and Achievement. Journal of School Health, 74(7), 262–273. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1746-1561.2004.tb08283.x
Lamdin, D. J. (1996). Evidence of Student Attendance as an Independent Variable in Education Production Functions. The Journal of Educational Research, 89(3), 155–162.
Lei, H., Cui, Y., & Zhou, W. (2018). Relationships between student engagement and academic achievement: A meta-analysis. Social Behavior and Personality: an international journal, 46(3), 517–528. https://doi.org/10.2224/sbp.7054
Li, Y., & Lerner, R. M. (2011). Trajectories of school engagement during adolescence: Implications for grades, depression, delinquency, and substance use. Developmental Psychology, 47(1), 233–247. https://doi.org/10.1037/a0021307
Nobre, A., & Janeiro, I. (sem data). Questionário de adaptação escolar e rendimento escolar. Um estudo de relação. Livro de resumos do VII simpósio nacional de investigação em psicologia.
OCDE. (2017). PISA 2015 Results (Volume III): Students’Well-Being. OECD Publishing.
Reschly, A. L., & Christenson, S. L. (2006). Prediction of Dropout Among Students With Mild Disabilities: A Case for the Inclusion of Student Engagement Variables. Remedial and Special Education, 27(5), 276–292. https://doi.org/10.1177/07419325060270050301
Rhodes, V. L. (2008). Learning on the go: Voices of highly mobile urban students. Learning Inquiry, 2(2), 113–125. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11519-008-0029-1
Ryan, A. M., & Patrick, H. (2001). The Classroom Social Environment and Changes in Adolescents’ Motivation and Engagement during Middle School. American Educational Research Journal, 38(2), 437–460.
Silva, C. R., Ribas, A. C., & Veiga, F. H. (2016). Escala Quadridimensional de Envolvimento dos Alunos na Escola (E4D-EAE): Análise Fatorial Confirmatória e Consistência Interna. Em Feliciano H. Veiga (Ed.), Envolvimento dos Alunos na Escola: Perspetivas da Psicologia e Educação—Motivação para o Desempenho Académico (pp. 35–46). Instituto de Educação, Universidade de Lisboa. http://repositorio.ul.pt/bitstream/10451/27482/1/Envolvimento_dos_alunos_na_escola_2016.pdf
Simons-Morton, B. (2004). Prospective association of peer influence, school engagement, drinking expectancies, and parent expectations with drinking initiation among sixth graders. Addictive Behaviors, 29(2), 299–309. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.addbeh.2003.08.005
Simons-Morton, B., & Chen, R. (2009). Peer and Parent Influences on School Engagement Among Early Adolescents. Youth & Society, 41(1), 3–25. https://doi.org/10.1177/0044118X09334861
Sirin, S. R., & Rogers-Sirin, L. (2004). Exploring School Engagement of Middle-Class African American Adolescents. Youth & Society, 35(3), 323–340. https://doi.org/10.1177/0044118X03255006
Skinner, E. A., & Belmont, M. J. (1993). Motivation in the classroom: Reciprocal effects of teacher behavior and student engagement across the school year. Journal of Educational Psychology, 85(4), 571–581. https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-06220.127.116.111 Suplemento.
Veiga, Feliciano H., & Robu, V. (2014) Measuring student engagement with school across cultures: Psychometric findings from Portugal and Romania. (2014). Romanian Journal of School Psychology, 7(14), 57–72.
Veiga, Feliciano H. (2013). Envolvimento Dos Alunos Na Escola: Elaboração De Uma Nova Escala De Avaliação. International Journal of Developmental and Educational Psychology, 1(1), 441–449.
Veiga, Feliciano H. (2016). Assessing Student Engagement in School: Development and Validation of a Four-dimensional Scale. Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences, 217, 813–819. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sbspro.2016.02.153
Veiga, Feliciano Henriques. (2007). Indisciplina e violência na escola: Práticas comunicacionais para professores e pais (3.a ed., Número 3a). Almedina. https://repositorio.ul.pt/handle/10451/5388
Veiga, Feliciano Henriques. (2012). Transgressão e Autoconceito dos Jovens na Escola (3a ed. rev. e aumentada, Número 3a). Editora Fim de Século. https://repositorio.ul.pt/handle/10451/5474
Wang, M.-T., & Holcombe, R. (2010). Adolescents’ Perceptions of School Environment, Engagement, and Academic Achievement in Middle School. American Educational Research Journal, 47(3), 633–662. https://doi.org/10.3102/0002831209361209
Wentzel, K. R. (2012). Teacher-Student Relationships and Adolescent Competence at School. Em T. Wubbels, P. den Brok, J. van Tartwijk, & J. Levy (Eds.), Interpersonal Relationships in Education: An Overview of Contemporary Research: Vol. Vol. 3 (pp. 19–35). SensePublishers. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-94-6091-939-8_2
Willms, J. D. (2003). Student Engagement at School: A Sense of Belonging and Participation: Results from PISA 2000. OECD.
Wu, J.-Y., Hughes, J. N., & Kwok, O.-M. (2010). Teacher–student relationship quality type in elementary grades: Effects on trajectories for achievement and engagement. Journal of School Psychology, 48(5), 357–387. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jsp.2010.06.004
Copyright (c) 2020 Millenium - Journal of Education, Technologies, and Health
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.
Authors who submit proposals for this journal agree to the following terms:
a) Articles are published under the License Creative Commons, in full open-access, without any cost or fees of any kind to the author or the reader;
b) The authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication, allowing the free sharing of work, provided it is correctly attributed the authorship and initial publication in this journal;
c) The authors are permitted to take on additional contracts separately for non-exclusive distribution of the version of the work published in this journal (eg, post it to an institutional repository or as a book), with an acknowledgment of its initial publication in this journal;
d) Authors are permitted and encouraged to publish and distribute their work online (eg, in institutional repositories or on their website) as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as increase the impact and citation of published work
Documents required for submission