Biohacking & transhumanism, mapping emerging discourses: a bibliometric review




ethic; transhumanism; biohacking; bibliometric indicators; cognitive evolution


Introduction: Biohacking's emergence has reshaped scientific research, especially within transhumanism and biological manipulation. Evaluating its impact on the scientific community is crucial for defining future research directions and communication in this field.

Objective: To critically examine perspectives, approaches, and debates in academic literature to develop a comprehensive understanding of the ethical, social, and cultural implications of technological advancement within the transhumanist context.

Methods: SCOPUS and bibliometric analysis were employed to quantify biohacking's influence. Social Network Analysis identified key themes and research focus areas.

Results: North American and European countries led in scientific productivity. Published articles and citation impact showed a moderate to low index. Social Network Analysis highlighted ethical considerations, social implications, and an emerging discourse on cognitive evolution.

Conclusion: The results highlight the need for comprehensive education and communication strategies to ensure that the public is well-informed about the risks, benefits, and ethical considerations associated with genetic modification technologies. Therefore, more research on legislation and regulations is required.


Download data is not yet available.


Aria, M., & Cuccurullo, C. (2017). bibliometrix: An R-tool for comprehensive science mapping analysis. Journal of Informetrics, 11(4), 959-975.

Birch, K. (2008). Neoliberalising Bioethics: Bias, Enhancement and Economistic Ethics. Genomics, Society and Policy, 4(2), 1-10.

Boss, J. A. (2022). Punks and profiteers in the war on death. Body and Religion, 5(2), 135–159.

Bour, S. (2019). Transhumanisme: Entre Augmentation, Esthétique Et Éthique. Philosophical Readings, 11(1), 6-16.

Brickley, L. (2019). Bodies without Borders: The Sinews and Circuitry of “folklore+.” Western Folklore, 78(1), 5–38.

Bugajska, A. (2022). The posthuman: Around the vanishing point of utopia. In B. Van Klink, M. Soniewicka, & L. Van Den Broeke (Eds.), Utopian Thinking in Law, Politics, Architecture and Technology (pp. 267-284). Edward Elgar Publishing.

Castillo, P. (2023). Desafíos del transhumanismo en la educación del siglo XXI: El alma de la democracia contra las cuerdas. Revista Complutense de Educación, 34(2), 347-356.

Colado García, S. (2020). El Arriesgado Camino de la Evolución Tecnológica. Medicina Naturista, 14(1), 18-21.

Conde, F. (2019). Apuntes sobre el análisis y la interpretación de los “emergentes discursivos” en el análisis sociológico de los discursos. Encrucijadas Revista Crítica de Ciencias Sociales, 17.

Cong, L., Ran, F. A., Cox, D., Lin, S., Barretto, R., Habib, N., Hsu, P. D., Wu, X., Jiang, W.,Marraffini, L. A., & Zhang, F. (2013). Multiplex Genome Engineering Using CRISPR/Cas Systems. Science, 339(6121), 819-823.

Cozza, M., Ellison, K. L., & Katz, S. (2022). Hacking age. Sociology Compass, 16(10), e13034.

Doerksen, M. D. (2017). Electromagnetism and the Nth sense: augmenting senses in the grinder subculture. The Senses and Society, 12(3), 344-349.

Gaspar, R., Rohde, P., & Giger, J. (2019). Unconventional settings and uses of human enhancement technologies: A non‐systematic review of public and experts’ views on self‐enhancement and DIY biology/biohacking risks. Human Behavior and Emerging Technologies, 1(4), 295-305.

Gauttier, S. (2019). Enhancing Oneself with an Exosense: Learning from Users’ Experiences. Human Behavior and Emerging Technologies, 1, 317-340.

Gorgoni, G. (2018). Responsible Research and Innovation and the Governance of Human Enhancement. Nanoethics, 12, 257-267.

Heyes, C. (2020). Psychological Mechanisms Forged by Cultural Evolution. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 29(4), 399-404.

Isa, N. M., & Shuri, M. (2017). Ethical Concerns About Human Genetic Enhancement in the Malay Science Fiction Novels. Science and Engineering Ethics, 24, 109-127.

Jinek, M., Chylinski, K., Fonfara, I., Hauer, M., Doudna, J. A., & Charpentier, E. (2012). A Programmable Dual-RNA–Guided DNA Endonuclease in Adaptive Bacterial Immunity. Science, 337(6096), 816-821.

Kyslan, P. (2019). Transhumanism and the issue of death. Ethics & Bioethics, 9(1-2), 71-80.

Le Dévédec, N., & Collin, J. (2018). Le médicament augmenté: L’usage du médicament dans les discours transhumanistes et ses significations sociales. Journal international de bioéthique et d’éthique des sciences, 29(3), 93.

Lima, V. (2023). EXPRESS: Biohacking COVID-19: Sharing Is Not Always Caring. Journal of Public Policy & Marketing, 42(4), 326-342.

Lotem, A., Halpern, J. Y., Edelman, S., & Kolodny, O. (2017). The evolution of cognitive mechanisms in response to cultural innovations. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 114(30), 7915-7922.

Mali, P., Yang, L., Esvelt, K. M., Aach, J., Guell, M., DiCarlo, J. E., Norville, J. E., & Church, G. M. (2013). RNA-Guided Human Genome Engineering via Cas9. Science, 339(6121), 823-826.

Mercer, C., & Trothen, T. J. (2021). Religion and the Technological Future: An Introduction to Biohacking, Artificial Intelligence, and Transhumanism. Springer International Publishing.

Miller, S. E., Legan, A. W., Henshaw, M. T., Ostevik, K. L., Samuk, K., Uy, F. M. K., & Sheehan, M. J. (2020). Evolutionary dynamics of recent selection on cognitive abilities. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 117(6), 3045-3052.

Nayga, R. M., Woodward, R., & Aiew, W. (2006). Willingness to Pay for Reduced Risk of Foodborne Illness: A Nonhypothetical Field Experiment. Canadian Journal of Agricultural Economics/Revue Canadienne d’agroeconomie, 54(4), 461-475.

Noorulain Hyder, Muhammad Liaquat Raza, & Azfar Athar Ishaqui. (2017). Transhumanism: The Epitome of Doom and Gloom. Annals of Abbasi Shaheed Hospital and Karachi Medical & Dental College, 22(2), 133-137.

Peterson, L., Mende, M., & Scott, M. L. (2022). From Self‐quantification to Self‐objectification? Framework and Research Agenda on Consequences for Well‐being. Journal of Consumer Affairs, 56(3), 1356-1374.

Pisarski. (2021). Prometheus the Biohacker? Mythical Grammar in the Discourse of Bioscience After the CRISPR Revolution. In The Blurring of Boundaries in Bioscientific Discourse (119-138). Logos Verlag.

Prada, M., Rohde, P., & Giger, J.-C. (2019). Unconventional Settings and Uses of Human Enhancement Technologies: A Non‐systematic Review of Public and Experts’ Views on Self‐enhancement and DIY Biology/Biohacking Risks. Human Behavior and Emerging Technologies, 1, 295-305.

Rifai, E. (2022). Whose Techno‐utopia? Power, Privilege, and the Religio‐secular Frameworks of the Contemporary Biohacking Movement. Religion Compass, 16(11-12), e12451.

Roduit, J. A. R., Heilinger, J.-C., & Baumann, H. (2015). Ideas of Perfection and the Ethics of Human Enhancement. Bioethics, 29(9), 622-630.

Rosoff, P. M. (2011). I’ll Be a Monkey’s Uncle: A Moral Challenge to Human Genetic Enhancement Research. Journal of Medical Ethics, 37(10), 611-615.

Rozumko, A. (2023). Constructing Knowledge at the Intersection of Disciplines: Appraisal in Knowledge Claims Concerning Animals in Posthumanist Discourse. Studia Linguistica Universitatis Iagellonicae Cracoviensis, 140(1), 49-65.

Schmidt, M. (2010). Xenobiology: A New Form of Life as the Ultimate Biosafety Tool. Bioessays, 32(4),322-331.

Spink, A., & Cole, C. (2007). Information Behavior: A Socio-Cognitive Ability. Evolutionary Psychology, 5(2), 1-10.

Triki, Z., Fong, S., Amcoff, M., & Kolm, N. (2022). Artificial mosaic brain evolution of relative telencephalon size improves inhibitory control abilities in the guppy (Poecilia reticulata). Evolution, 76(1), 128-138.

Yetisen, A. K. (2018). Biohacking. Trends in Biotechnology, 36(8), 744-747.

Zabala Leal, T. D. (2021). La ética en inteligencia artificial desde la perspectiva del derecho. Via Inveniendi Et Iudicandi, 16(2), 1-27.




How to Cite

Guevara-Pezoa, F. (2024). Biohacking & transhumanism, mapping emerging discourses: a bibliometric review . Millenium - Journal of Education, Technologies, and Health, 2(23), e34408.



Engineering, Technology, Management and Tourism